Pulaski NY Alumni

Slideshow Image Slideshow Image Slideshow Image Slideshow Image Slideshow Image

History of Pulaski NY Schools


Pulaski Academy, as an academic, tuition-support­ed institution, had disappeared, and in its stead, Pulaski Academy and Union School arose. With this change Pulaski guaranteed a future in which educational advantages at the academy level would be available to all the children of all the people.

With the 20th century came many changes and the next thirty-eight years witnessed much educa­tional progress by the Academy.

Even the first year is important, for it was then Art Rider wrote “The Crimson and the Blue,” then merely a favorite song of the students. Finally, it became the song all graduates carry afar in their hearts — our Alma Mater.

This was the age of those famous grid iron victories. Our school was not only Oswego County Champions but it trounced most of the Northern New York challengers; including Watertown, Rome, Syracuse, Fulton and Oswego. To keep in form to battle such formidable foes, gymnasium training was established for the winter and spring months. The rooters were so enthusiastic in those days, Mexico had to call off its Pulaski game because the mob could not be kept off the field. But such success cannot last. Although football schedules have been played at intervals, championships have been missing. Baseball, starting soon after the turn of the century, stole the limelight. But lack of grounds seriously cripples all athletics. Imagine hiking a mile to Lanes’ flats, practicing in 90-degree weather, repairing the field and hiking back. No wonder the school begged for a field of its own.

The students had enough energy left, however, to play pranks. For instance, a wire spider was lowered through the register towards Professor Beans’ head during chapel one day. An observing teacher, at­tracted by the giggles of assembled students, saw the spider and grabbed it before it made its landing on the orating professor’s head.

In 1902 the boys organized the Eulogian debating society. The first challenge was to Sandy Creek, who got cold feet and withdrew. A mock trial was held instead and was so successful it was given as an annual school entertainment in the Old Opera House. Another traditional occasion brought forth those rousing “Spade” orations, spoken when the Senior Class presented the “Spade” (for digging up knowledge and learning) to the Junior Class. Class rivalry was keen and the Senior President always advised and admonished from his superior heights of knowledge, while the Juniors swore to outdo their predecessors in a glory of their own, without as many mistakes as the Seniors had made. This class rivalry went on all through the year. Class meetings were secret, but the Juniors always had to look out for Senior Class spies and when they were caught, the battle was on. Sometimes the Seniors even managed to run the Junior elections.

Do you remember the paintings and busts that gazed down from the walls and held you with accusing eyes for not having worked harder during regent’s week? Well many of these were presented by the Alumni Association just before the annex was added.

With the 20th century, desire for education seems to have increased along with the greater regents requirements from Albany. Our academy was decidedly crowded, with eight grades on the first floor (two in each room) and high school and training class on the second and third floors, where often it was necessary to sit three in a seat. Such conditions gave rise to a demand for an annex. The opposition was strong, but by a yea and nay type of voting the issue was carried and $16,000 appropriated for improvements.

A modern heating and ventilating system raised the cost to $21,000. Ground was broken May 21, 1906 and everything finished on October 19th when the dedication was held. Songs and cheers com posed for the annex interspersed the speeches of praise for the marvelous achievement. 90′ x 40′, the annex embraced a huge study hall and two class rooms on the second floor as well as four grade rooms on the first floor. The numerous windows and ventilators threatened to ruin the doctors because of their benefits to health.

The girls were especially pleased with the cloak rooms, because they promised to eliminate the loss and tossing about of coats, rubbers, books and umbrellas by the male contemporaries. The installation of new single seats lowered many marks and threatened those student tete-a-tetes. To complete the improvements, athletic grounds were at last secured; so, there was no excuse for a losing team.

To keep up with the changes, the girls organized the Philogian debating society in 1906. Although their debates such as “Should Girls Wear Powder” were not decisive, their straw rides, fudge parties and roasts in honor of the improved school were popular with the boys (as were the Philogians themselves). The old curriculum including such subjects as Astronomy, Zoology, Botany, Greek and Rhetoric was changed. As a result the curriculum then consisted of College Entrance, Normal Entrance, and Business Courses. Another established custom remained until several years ago — the nightmare of every Senior — the Senior Essay, due in May and required for graduation.

The school that the Pulaski citizens of 1853 visualized was quite different from Pulaski’s first school, — that of Jeremiah A. Mathewson’s black smith shop. Their ambition was a large brick structure for a classical school to be known as Pulaski Academy. It was to be up-to-date and sufficient to take care of the educational needs of the community.

Through the efforts of prominent Pulaski men, an act of legislature was passed consolidating three school districts within Pulaski and empowering a school board to establish a classical school.

With the right to build secured, it was but a short time before construction work began near a picturesque grove of chestnut, oak and maple trees on a bank of the Salmon River opposite the high palisades. The entire acreage where the school was to be built was only I % acres. The soil was first broken by willing hands in May 1854. Everyone worked toward the goal of a superior structure for the advancement of learning in Pulaski.

Proof of the industry and diligence of the workers lies in the fact that, in less than a year, the school was finished. On January 8, 1855, the Pulaski Academy was accepted and dedicated.

This structure stood as tangible evidence of the ambition and vision of those forward-looking Pulaskians. It was a magnificent three story building, measuring eighty-five by fifty feet — truly an exceptionally fine structure for one of those times. Careful planning and budgeting had limited the cost to $7,128.10.

Each year from 1854 to 1938, Pulaski Academy has been represented by a graduating class. The oldest living graduate is believed to be David Mahaffy who attended the Academy and graduated in 1855.

In the early years, students receiving an academic certificate were allowed to teach. Approximately 100 students from Pulaski and vicinity attended the academy in I860. Male students away from home roomed and cooked on the third floor or boarded in homes. The few women students who attended the school either stayed with the principal and his family, who had two rooms on the first floor, or boarded in the town.

To all girls at all times, the third floor was “no woman’s land.” There was one exception to this rule concerning women. “Jenny,” the historic skeleton, was the exception that proved the rule. Tradition has it that Jenny was exhumed when the basement of the first school was dug. We do not vouch for the truth of the tradition, but we do know that “Jen” has been the “right hand gal” of biology and hygiene teachers for years without remembered number. Jenny was often seen with a pipe or cigar clenched between her teeth. Or perhaps a red mitten would be seen protruding from the place where a tongue was once located. We do not know how long Jenny existed as a human, but we are sure that she has furnished education to many from as far back as 1850 to the fire of December 8, 1937.

“Requiescat in Pace.”

During the decade and a half from 1860, four teachers divided among themselves the teaching of mathematics, history, grammar and languages. Usually there was but one woman in this group of four teachers. She was officially known as the preceptress.

The bell, familiar to Pulaskians since the erection of the school, has been the object of many a prankster’s attention. Freezing water in the winter in the inverted bell always succeeded in silencing the announcement of school time. Halloween rarely passed by but that the clapper was removed. 1937 marks the last incident of this kind.

Until 1892 Academic courses only were offered by this distinctly classical institution. There was a tuition fee of $10.00 a term with a 50 cents additional charge to cover incidentals. As there were three terms in the year, the tuition would figure $31.50 a year. School sessions were from 9 o’clock until 12 noon and from 1 o’clock until 4 o’clock in the afternoon. A short chapel was held every morning in the rooms on the east side of the stairs on the first floor.

Public speaking and elecution were essential parts of the curriculum.

At that time, they were not extra-curricular activities. Each student was required to participate in the weekly rhetoricals, held before the assembly at which four or five minute speeches were presented. Debating and formal arguments were popular, and were the only outside activities soon sored by the school in the early years of the Academy.

In 1892, to meet the needs of the increasing number of students and the advancement of educational methods, the old classical academy was changed to a Union Free School. Academic training was now offered in the same superior manner, free of charge, except for a small non-resident fee.

The interior was redecorated to accommodate more students in more class rooms. At this time, the Elementary Students of Pulaski who had studied in primary schools situated on the site of the tennis court by the Congregational Church and on the east side of South Salina Street were moved to the Academy building. For the first time, the halls echoed with children’s voices and the running of children’s feet.

The library, starting modestly and expanding through donations was the pride of the Academy.

In 1910 Mrs. Moody made a gift of 500 classical works, and $2,000 to furnish a reading room and the Principal’s office.

In 1911 a basketball team was organized. None of the players had ever seen a basketball; so, the first games were an amusing novelty. Again, the lack of a suitable practice field made success difficult. The athletic Association was started at this time to manage and support our growing athletics.

Miss Mary Clark, an instructress, in 1912 gave us our first musical organizations, the Boys and Girls Glee Clubs and the Orchestra. In their first year, they gave the only complete concert given until our recent spring band concerts.

In 1915 the class accomplished something every class has desired in vain, — a trip to Washington. In this same year the boys’ Beta Alpha Debating Fraternity was organized. Those secret organizations allowed no fooling around as three spying under classmen discovered when caught one night. After a fair and just trial by the Beta Alphas, three of them were sentenced to stand before study hall one hour. Fraternity pins were the ambition of every girl even tho she feared being reported engaged to the donor of the pin.

During the hectic World War years, almost all activities were suspended. Boys had short semesters to work on cadet farms, and girls founded knitting and bandage rolling parties.

After a month’s rest in the influenza epidemic followed by the Armistice, things started again with a bang. Cheered on by the reorganized Philogians, the baseball team won the Oswego County championship.

In this year, of 1919, the “Crimson and Blue” was established, and published three times a year until 1930, when it became the year book.

This post-war year also saw the introduction of track athletics as a major sport at Pulaski Academy; a sport which flourished with us until a very few years ago. Our track teams won many championships.

In 1925, with little opposition a new part was added to the old school, including a gymnasium, auditorium, library, and seventh and eighth grade rooms. Athletics, school dances, benefits, commencement exercises and other activities were now held in the school.

In 1930 the school paper, the What-Not, was organized. In the next year Mr. Freeman came to establish and direct our band.

In 1937 a new course of Home Economics was started and new modern equipment put in on the third floor for this course. The curriculum now included College Entrance, Academic, Business, Agriculture and Home Making Courses. The first floor held kindergarten and the first six grades as well as newly furnished office. Besides study hall, which had been divided once to make studies A and B in 1930 and again in 1934 to make two urgently needed class rooms; there were two other rooms off study hall, the four rooms in front and the cloak rooms — all on the second floor. In addition, the two science rooms were located on the third floor south east and southwest. There were also on this floor a home-making room with windows facing west, and agriculture room with windows facing north; while the school nurses’ office occupied the east side of the floor.

One cold winter morning, December ninth, nineteen thirty-seven, the citizens of our fair town were aroused at one o’clock to witness one of the most magnificent and most tragic fires in Pulaski history — the burning of the old Academy building — Long live her glorious memory!

___________________________________________________________________________________________

 

1878 School1878 School

A HISTORY

OF THE

PULASKI SCHOOLS

FROM

1808 through 1938

PUBLISHED BY THE

MONDAY HISTORICAL CLUB

PREPARED BY

OLIVE CAROLINE RICHARDS, ‘08 ALTHEA ORTON ORTON, ’09

Printed by The Pulaski Democrat Publishing Company
19 3 9

 

Acknowledgments

The Monday Historical Club gratefully acknowledges its debt to Pu­laski’s citizens and friends who so generously and gladly gave information and assistance to make this history possible.

Other sources that were of great help in preparing this history of Pu­laski schools were:

Academian. The ……………………………………………….…… August 1890

Academy Handbooks ………………………………………….……….1932-1938

Academy Quarterly, The…………….……………………………December 1890

Board of Education Minutes……………………………………1853 through 1932

Conscriptum Annum ……………………………………………………1893-1917

Crimson and Blue …………………………………………………………………………1919-1938

Gazateer of New York, French……………………….…………….………….1860

Historical Souvenir of Pulaski, Grip’s…………………………………………1902

Maps:

Village of Pulaski…………………………………….…………………………1837

Village of Pulaski by J. B. Butler early 1860’s

Village of Pulaski…………………………………….…………….….…………1885

Oswego County Business Directory, Child’s…………….….……….……….1866-7

Oswego County History, Crisfield Johnson……………………….……………..1877

Pulaski Democrat Files……………………………………………………1835-1939

Pulaski, Past and Present, Monroe……………………………….…………..…..1911

What-Not, The…………………………………………………….……….1929-1938

The chief purpose in preparing this history is the compilation of data, the sources of which are gradually disappearing.

 

Pulaski Map

Key to Map of Pulaski, N. Y.

  1. Court House, built 1819.
  2. Congregational Church, built 1829, Church and Bridge streets.
  3. Methodist Church, built 1832, Salina and High streets.
  4. Baptist Church, first built 1834, second, built in 1895.
  5. Episcopal Church, Lake Street, built 1850.
  6. Methodist Church, Hubble street, built 1860.
  7. Congregational Church, Lake and Church streets^ built 1867.
  8. Catholic Church, Park street, built 1888.
  9. Former railroad station. Railroad from Oswego to Richland, opened 1865.

10A. Former passenger station. Syracuse Northern R. R. opened 1871.

10B. Former freight station. Syracuse Northern R. R. opened 1871.

  1. Tucker’s Hall and Building. Burned in fire of 1881. Postoffice from map of 1860’s.
  2. C. H. Cross’ land office from map of 1885.
  3. Betts’ Opera House from map of 1885. Later Hohman’s Opera House. Burned 1934.
  4. Pulaski Democrat office in Tucker Building. From map of 1860’s,
  5. Pulaski Bank, from map of 1860’s.
  6. Pulaski Democrat, from map of 1885.
  7. Pulaski National Bank, from map of 1885.
  8. Pulaski Democrat, Park and Broad streets.
  9. Pulaski Democrat, Maple Avenue.
  10. Pulaski Democrat, N. Jefferson St. since 1917.
  11. Masonic Temple, dedicated 1893.
  12. I. O. O. F. Temple, built 1924. Burned 1939. Site of new Kallet Theatre 1939.
  13. Washington Park.
  14. South Park.
  15. 1939 N. Y. C. Railroad station.
  16. Post Office^ leased 1936.
  17. First school in early 1800’s in building built by J. A. Matthewson for blacksmith shop.
  18. First school building erected, corner Port and Salina streets,
  19. Building owned by a Mr. Bush, used for school.
  20. Home of Pliny Jones, Farmer’s Corner, used for school one winter.
  21. Early log school. Later site of C. H. Cross’ land office in the 60’s.
  22. Brick school, was being used as Masonic Temple in 1826.
  23. Mill street school. Advertised for sale, 1855.
  24. Academy dedicated 1855. Burned December 9, 1937, except 1925 annex.
  25. South side school, sold 1864.
  26. Brick school, Salina street, built 1864. Dwelling house since 1892.
  27. Grade school, 1867-1892, was early Congregational church.
  28. Pulaski Academy and Central School. Being built 1939.
  29. Meacham Community Center.
  30. Former Syracuse Northern Railroad bridge, built 1871. First “Long Bridge” just upstream, built 1888. Present “Long Bridge” built 1923.

The basis for this map is the J. B. Butler map of the early 1860’s, lent by Dr. J. E. Abbott.


Contents

Pulaski Village Map … …………………………………………………….………4

Key to Map ………………………………………………………………………………..5

History 1808-1939 ……………………………………………………………………7-32

Reminiscences ………………………………………………………………………33-64

Classified Lists

Board of Education 1853-1939……………………………………………..65-69

Faculty 1853-1939 ……………………………………………………………69-77

Academy Alumni 1868-1938 ………………………………………………77-84

Alumni Association Meetings 1889-1938………………………………..84-85

Training Class Alumni 1897-1933………………………………………..85-87

School and the World War …………………………………………………87-89

Graduation Honors 1893-1939…………………………………………….89-90

Scholarship and Public Speaking Awards………………………………90-95

Sportsmanship Awards .. ………………………..……………………..95

Trophies and Awards ………………………………………………………95-96

Registration, Pulaski Academy and Central School 1939 …….. 96-98

 

History of Pulaski Schools

The story of the development of the New York state system of educa­tion parallels the settlement and growth of its communities and cities. Likewise the history of the schools of Pulaski has its roots in the settlement and progress of up­state New York. While a colony, New York had established no gener­al system of education. What schools existed were private schools or the result of special legislation. Com­mon schools, that is free schools for all the children of all the people, had not been visioned and education therefore was largely the privilege of the well-to-do.

In 1787, Governor Clinton called the attention of the New York legis­lature to the subject of education and a law was passed providing for the appointment of the Regents of the University. King’s College had been incorporated in New York City in 1754 and in 1784 its name had been changed to Columbia College. An extensive system of state educa­tion had been set up with a govern­ing board called the Regents of the University, but it was found to be impracticable. This Board of Re­gents of 1787 therefore superseded the Board of 1784. In 1789 an act was passed appropriating Certain portions of the public lands for church and school purposes. Pro­gressive steps followed and in 1793 the Regents recommended the estab­lishment of a general system of com­mon schools. In 1795 Governor Clinton urged the same in his mes­sage to the legislature. On April 9, 1795 therefore a law was passed for the purpose of encouraging and maintaining schools in the several cities and towns in this state in which the children of the inhabitants of the state should be instructed in the English language and be taught English grammar, arithmetic and reading.

State Supervision

In 1812 a reorganization law was passed and a state superintendent was appointed who served from 1813 to 1821. His activities, and gradual changes in the law, made for continued improvement in the status of the common schools.

In 1854 the office of Superinten­dent of Public Instruction was creat­ed which restored the earlier sys­tem of general supervision. In 1855 a law was passed allowing the Re­gents of the University to designate certain academies in various coun­ties in which a teachers’ training class might be taught free. The state would allow ten dollars for each pupil instructed as a teacher, and the number was not to exceed twenty in each academy. Local sup­ervision was required when the office of school commissioner was created in 1856.

Pulaski’s Early Schools

Pulaski began to participate early in the state movement for public education. Although Pulaski was not incorporated as a village until April 26, 1832, nevertheless from various sources it has been possible to reconstruct a general picture of its interest in education and its early provisions for schooling. The first school in the town was taught by Milly Ellis in the summer of 1808. Quoting from Grisfield Johnson’s History of Oswego County, published in 1877, the first school in Pulaski was held in a building erected by J. A. Mathewson for a blacksmith shop, near the south end of the Palmer House. This location was in the neighborhood of where the Ran­dall Hotel stands in 1939. This school was taught by Rebecca Cross afterwards the wife of James Har­mon. She was succeeded by Miss A. Hinman. Pliny Jones kept the next school in the log house belonging to J. A. Mathewson.

The first building erected as a school house stood on the premises later owned by William Hill, the northwest corner of Port and Salina streets, and was near the front gate. Two months later the building burn­ed and school was opened in a build­ing owned by a Mr. Bush, that oc­cupied the site where in 1877 was the residence of George Wood. Pliny Jones then opened his house for the accommodation of the school where it was held during one winter, when a log school house was erected on the site where the land office was in 1860 near the Court House. This school was subsequently removed to or near the site of the Baptist church. These were all early build­ings as the first Baptist church was dedicated in 1834.

The next school building erected was of brick on the ground now oc­cupied by the Congregational church at the southwest corner of Lake and Church streets. The date for the building of this school has not been found, but it can be assumed that it was in early use for in Crisfield Johnson’s History (1877) it states that the Masonic lodge of Pulaski met in 1826 in Masonic Hall in the second story of the brick school house. This stood where the present Congregational church was later built.

The Congregational Church and Society was worshipping in a wooden structure built in 1829 on the near­by corner of Church and Bridge streets, where the tennis court now is. In 1865 negotiations went on between the Church Society and the Board of Education relative to an exchange of lots and buildings. This was done, and the present Con­gregational church was dedicated in 1867. Meanwhile the Board of Edu­cation refitted the wooden church building at Church and Bridge streets for school purposes. This building as well as the preceding brick building on the nearby Lake street corner were for the grades, as we now call them.

However the south side and the east end had their grade schools. Little has been found regarding the grade school building on the south side of Maple Ave. at the Richland corner, except that Mr. David Mahaffy attended school there as a child, and in the Board of Educa­tion minutes for February 22, 1855 there is notice of the sale of the school building on Mill St. (Maple Ave.) to be held at the hotel of I. L. Dillenbeck on Saturday, March 3, 1855. It may be that this building was not used after the Academy was built in 1854.

Although the brick school on Lake street played a very important part in the life of the community, at a date unknown to us a school had been in use on the south side. Quot­ing from the Northern Democrat of March 17, 1853, an editorial says “On Friday evening of last week we attended an exhibition by the schol­ars of Mr. Fenton’s school on the south side of the river. The young ladies and gentlemen gave them­selves great credit, and it was unanimously agreed that Mr. Fenton was keeping a first rate school.” This building must have been the one located in the angle of Rome and Salina streets.

Three school districts in the vil­lage were mentioned previous to the organization of the Academy in 1853, districts 7, 25 and 30. It may be safe to assume that No. 7 was the uptown district and 25 and 30 were the Mill street and south side (Salina street) schools. An adver­tisement appeared several times in the weekly paper, the Pulaski Demo­crat of late 1853, (Vol. 1 No. 1 was issued July 21, 1853), requesting that library books of District No. 7 be returned, and Silas Meacham was appointed librarian of District No. 7 on December 2, 1853.

An accompanying map will show the location of these three schools, as well as others, and the dates so far as known.

The newspapers of the day made frequent mention of school mat­ters. The Richland Courier (Pulaski newspaper) of June 23, 1847 her­alds a “Scholars’ Jubilee.” “A Com­mon School celebration will be held at Pulaski on Saturday, July 3, com­mencing at 10 o’clock a. m. An ad­dress to the schools will be made. Parents, Teachers, Scholars, and all interested, both young and old, are respectfully invited to attend and assist in commemorating the birth­day of American independence. C. D. Crandall, Town Superintendent.”

The superintendents and teachers were busy on their own outside activities, for month after month newspaper notices appeared of teachers institutes meeting at Mex­ico, Sand Bank, Sandy Creek or Pu­laski, with programs showing topics of a very scholarly and abstract nature.

 

Count Casimir Pulaski

Polish Revolutionary War hero, after whom
Pulaski was named

 

 

Court House and C. H. Cross Land Office in early 1860’s. Land Office was on site of early log school. Syracuse Northern Railroad ran through site of Land Office in 1871.

 

Private Schools

Private schools for higher learn­ing or of broader scope than the common schools provided, seemed to flourish, from time to time. The Pulaski Banner of November 8, 1831 advertises a Select School in the Masonic Hall by M. W. Southworth. The Richland Courier of December 1, 1847 carries the notice :“A Select School opened in this village by D. A. King, commenced in the base­ment of the Baptist Church.” And the following is part of his adver­tisement appearing for several weeks: “Elementary Branches of English and Classical Education will commence if sufficient inducement: Common English, $3 per quarter; Higher English, $4; Languages, $5. The French language will be taught by Manescu’s Oral System.”

In September 1848 there was a Select School advertised for both sexes by D. Bond, A. B. In April 1848, F. Sherbrook announced a writing school for four weeks if pa­tronage warranted. In November 1850 Mrs. Huntington’s Select School held its closing exercises for that term, the winter term to begin De­cember 16, 1850.

Miss E. Bright opened the Pulaski Seminary on August 13, 1851 with Lower English, Higher English and Languages. In 1852 this was called “Young Ladies Seminary” with Miss W. Bright principal and was adver­tised to open September 1, 1852 in the sessions room of the Congrega­tional church (Church and Bridge streets).

Another announcement appeared in the papers of 1851 and 1852 and no explanation was found why the heading was so distinctly printed, “Pulaski High School.” To quote “The second term of this school will commence on Thursday, November 6, 1851 and continue 14 weeks. . . . Miss E. Bright, Principal, Mrs. All­port, Teacher of Music.” An editor­ial in the February 19, 1852 paper comments on the Examination Day held on February 13; which public review had appeared previously as an advertisement and invitation sign­ed by Miss E. Bright, principal. The spring term advertisement was also headed “Pulaski High School.”

The need for providing means of higher education had been gradually appreciated by the community. Probably one encouragement was the advertisements in the weekly paper by neighboring academies. These had been founded some years before and could therefore offer in­ducements to Pulaski young people to enter their institutions for advanced learning.

Whatever may have been the con­tributing factors that led to the final organization of the Academy, the activity in the village regarding an improved school system was keen and the newspaper accounts help to clarify the steps taken from 1851 to the final incorporation of the Acad­emy on June 4, 1853.

Academy or Union School?

Argument seemed to center around the question of whether there should be a private institution, an academy, or whether there should be a joining of the school districts to form* a Union School. A school meeting was called for December 29, 1851. It was stated that there were about 400 children of suitable age to attend common schools within the boundaries of the corporation. The meeting was held at the Brick School House (Lake and Church streets) on Monday December 28, 1851 with George Gurley, chairman. Two res­olutions were passed, one to consoli­date the several school districts within the village and to, form a Union School, and secondly, a com­mittee of three from each of the three districts to ascertain the views of the inhabitants on forming a Union School with suitable depart­ments for higher learning.

The Northern Democrat of April 15, 1852 stated that the Pulaski Union School Bill failed in the Leg­islature 54 to 52, and that the real reason for the lost bill was not known, as the new district would have drawn as much school money as three entire districts and parts of two others.

Pulaski Academy Formed

Whatever may have been the rea­son for failure to get a Union School, agitation continued and a new bill reached the Legislature in March 1853. This bill consolidated the three districts to form the Pulaski Acad­emy and the formal incorporation is dated June 4, 1853, Chapter 305 of the Laws of 1853, the board of edu­cation to consist of nine members.

The first meeting of the Pulaski Board of Education was held August 1, 1853 and at this and succeeding meetings, plans were made to buy a site and erect an academy building by raising $5000 in five annual in­stallments and to raise $500 for the coming winter school, district No. 7.

The Academy as an institution began to function before it had a building of its own. The Board rented the basement of the Baptist church for $12.00 for six months. Part of an advertisement from the Pulaski Democrat of November 10, 1853 follows: “Pulaski Academy, Stephen C. Miller, A. M. Principal, Miss W. Bright, Asst. (Later called Teacher of Female Department). Winter term 22 weeks beginning No­vember 14. Tuition $2.00, $3.00 and $5.00 per quarter of eleven weeks.” The Board of Education on Novem­ber 5, 1853 signed a state agreement for the preparation of teachers. To quote again from the advertisement: “The discipline of the school will be strict and no pupil of vicious habits, or who does not yield a cheerful obedience to the rules and regula­tions of the institution will be per­mitted to continue a member.”

The Pulaski Democrat of January 19, 1854 carried a notice that The Inhabitants should meet at the Brick School House on Friday evening, January 20, 1854 to consider plans for the proposed Academy building. The February 9th, 1854 paper says that a plan for the building had been adopted. Ground was broken in May, 1854.

 

Academy Building

A report to the Regents of June 28, 1855 describes the building briefly thus: 2nd floor had four rooms, hall and stairway; 2 school­rooms, Males 49′ x 33% Females 31′ x 33′; Recitation, Males 17′ x 22″, Females 17′ x 22″. 3rd floor, hall ten feet wide lengthwise through the middle, with thirteen rooms for use of (Students, private rooms for study; an assistant teacher living on the third floor. The May 8, 1854 paper states that the spring term began in May 1854 with forty scholars. Music lessons were to be given to the academy pupils by a Miss Carpenter of Utica.

The estimate of four hundred school children in the three districts -was quite accurate because a school census taken on December 31, 1853 showed 449 individuals over four years and under twenty-one.

The following description of the erection of the academy building and its dedication is taken from Crisfield Johnson’s History of Oswego County, which was published in 1877, only twenty-two years after the Academy was dedicated:

The citizens of the village gener­ally became very much interested in the education of its children and youth, and in the year 1853, through the exertions of Messrs. Charles H. Cross, Hiram Murdock, Newton M. Wardwell, Samuel Woodruff, and William H. Lester, an act of the leg­islature) was passed consolidating parts of three school districts lying within the village into one district, to be known thereafter as the “Pu­laski school district,” empowering its board of trustees to establish and organize a classical school, to be known by the name of “The Pulaski Academy.”

The above-named gentlemen, be­ing the first trustees of said district, and ex-officio Board of Education, did as soon as practicable establish the Pulaski academy. In the summer of 1855 it became subject to the visita­tion of the board of regents, in the same manner and to the same extent as though originally incorporated by them, and now enjoys all the bene­fits and advantages, and ranks among the best academies of the State. In April, 1854, the beautiful grounds on the banks of the Salmon river, containing about one and three-quarter acres, were secured and purchased by said trustees, for the sum of five hundred dollars, then unimproved and nearly covered with a grove of chestnut, oak and maple trees, upon which was erected the present stately structure of brick, eighty by fifty feet, three stories high, the third story ten feet, the two lower being thirteen feet “in the clear.” The estimated cost of the superstructure was eight thousand dollars, but owing to prudent and economical management of the trus­tees and building committees, the same was completed at the actual cost of seven thousand one hundred and twenty-eight dollars and ten cents. (Cost of academy, seven thousand and one hundred dollars; lot, library, and philosophical ap­paratus, thirteen hundred and eighty-five dollars; total, eight thous­and and four hundred and eighty- five dollars.)

The following were the building committee: George Gurley, Anson Maltby, Charles H. Cross, Don A. King, Samuel Woodruff, Anson R. Jones, D. C. Salisbury, John T. Mc­Carty, and William H. Lester. Will­iam S. Carpenter, master builder.

The following sub-committees were appointed, viz.:

Messrs. George Gurley, Samuel Woodruff, and Don A. King, to per­fect and present a proper plan for the academy.

Charles H. Cross, Samuel Wood­ruff, and William H. Lester, to pre­pare estimates of cost of labor and materials.

Charles H. Cross and Don A. King, to contract for timber, sawed lum­ber and stone and sand.

George Gurley and Don A. King, to contract for carpenter and joiner work.

George Gurley and Anson R. Jones, to contract for lathing and plastering.

Anson Maltby, general superinten­dent of laborers and erection of building.

Early in May, 1854, the ground was first broken, and so harmonious­ly and expeditiously did the work progress, that on the 12th day of January, 1855, the building was ac­cepted and dedicated with appropri­ate ceremonies (termed a celebra­tion) with the following order of ex­ercises:

  1. Prayer, by Rev. Andrew Oliver; 2. Music, by the choir; 3. Remarks,

by the town superintendent; 4. Music, by the choir; 5. Address^ by Hon. Henry N. Wright; 6. Singing, Dedication Ode; 7. Prayer, by Rev. L. Muzzy; 8. Benediction, by Rev. R. Houghton.

The academy consists of two de­partments, male and female, with the following courses of study: academic, preparatory, college course, and commercial. . . The

average annual expense of the in­stitution, exclusive of repairs on the building, has been four thousand dollars.

Grade Schools

The arrangements for elementary education following the completion of the Academy building varied from year to year, but evidence seems to justify reaching the conclus­ion that the brick school house on Lake street and the south side school were temporarily given up, and the Mill street school was listed for sale in 1855.

Evidence also seems to indicate that the brick school and the south side schools were later used again. In April of 1858 a committee of the Board of Education reported an esti­mate of $100.00 to repair the brick school house for use, or $8.00 to put the building in condition to preserve it. It was decided then to close up the school house in such manner “as is deemed expedient/ But on No­vember 6, 1858, a special school meeting was held to consider repair­ing the brick school (at Lake and Church) and removing two of the primary schools (grades) from the Academy to it. On November 10th the board moved that two primary schools be removed to the brick school at the beginning of the next term.

The next year began the move­ment for the reopening of the south side school. On October 4, 1859 at a school meeting, the Board of Edu­cation was requested to repair the old school on the south side of the river at an expense not exceeding $75. This must have been the build­ing at the angle between Rome and Salina streets. After investigation the sum of $150.00 was voted, and the April 19, 1860 issue of the Demo­crat states that the south side school would open with Miss S. A. Gillespie teaching for $15,00 a month. The May 12th, 1860 Democrat states that there would be four grades only at the south side school and no studies would be taught in advance of those in the brick school on the north side. An April issue had said that the inhabitants of the south side of the river “had long been asking for a school and it was hoped that their wants would now be permanently supplied.

The following copy of the report by the Board of Education to the Re­gents as of 1859 shows the status ac­quired by the Academy since its be­ginning in 1853. Number of teach­ers, 3; whole number of students in attendance during year, 170; num­ber that pursued Classical studies, 61; amount appropriated from State Literature fund, $118.36; value of lot and buildings, $9028; value of library, $301 ;j value* of apparatus, $175; total revenues, $2557; total expenditures, $2514; no. of volumes in library, 293; date of incorpora­tion, June 4, 1853. From French’s Historical and Statistical Gazeteer, 1860, p. 129. Population, Pulaski, 1860i—1,168.

A circular dated August 20, 1861 has been lent by Mrs. Carrie Allen Wightman, describing the Academy soon after its founding. Page 13.

New South Side School

By October 1863 the question had been raised of disposing of the house and lot occupied by the pri­mary school on the south side and procuring another location. Mr. Walter C. Wood, now of Stamford, Conn., thinks this change was brought about by the plans of the Oswego to Rome Railroad to go through in 1865 and which used this site for a railroad station.

Plans went ahead for the erection of a southside brick school, about 40 x 26, and the board president was authorized to purchase a lot for said primary school. This must be the brick building now the dwelling of Harry Lamb on the east side of Sa­lina street, south of the railroad. John W. Richards came to Pulaski, a boy of ten and attended this school in 1864, soon after it was completed.

In 1867 the teacher of the south side was a Miss Tyler and the course of study included both courses in the First and Second Grade Schools on the north side, but was not to en­croach upon the primary depart­ment of the Academy.

The March 21, 1867 Pulaski Demo­crat carried a glowing editorial on an entertainment held by Academy pupils in Tucker’s Hall. The April term of 1867 had one hundred pupils registered but the paper stated that there ought to be twenty-five or thirty more from this village.

By 1868 agitation began for an­other “Free” school, and the Board of Education was authorized to fit up a vacant room in the “old church” school and commence a school of “Higher” grade; this was done by having the second story fitted for the “High” school. In 1867 the change from the Lake street brick school to the church building had taken place.

CIRCULAR.

 

PULASKI ACADEMY.

FACULTY.

PULASKI E. SMITH, A. B.

Principal and Professor of Ancient Languages

MISS EMMA N. BEEBE

Preceptress and Teacher of French and Ornamentals

HARVEY H. BUTTERWORTH, Professor of Mathematics.

ORVILLE A. FORBES, Teacher of Primary Department.

JAMES N. BETTS, M. D., Lecturer on Anatomy and Physiology.

REV. L. W. CHANEY, Lecturer on Mental and Moral Science.

DON A. KING, Lecturer on Law and Civil Government.

This institution is located at Pulaski, Oswego County, N. Y. It is easy of access being distant but three miles from the Watertown & Rome Rail­road. Pulaski is a quiet, healthful village, of about thirteen hundred in­habitants. The Institution is well established, and offers to students ad­vantages equal to those of any Academy in the State for a thorough practical education, a preparation for any stage of a Collegiate course, or for instruc­tion in the Modern Languages or ornamental branches.

Particular attention will be bestowed upon students preparing them­selves for teachers. In the fall term a Teachers’ Class will be formed, in which a limited number will be instructed free of charge.

The Principal will pay particular attention to the Department of Nat­ural Sciences, giving frequent lectures and experiments before the school.

The discipline of the Institution will be strict and impartial, and no stu­dent of vicious habits will be retained as a member. A correct account of the attendance, deportment and scholarship of each pupil is kept. A copy of this will be sent at the middle and close of each term to the parent or guardian.

The year will be divided into three terms of fourteen weeks each, com­mencing on the 3d Wednesday in August, the 2d Wednesday in December and the 1st Wednesday in April.

TERMS OF TUITION:

No incidental charge will be made. Tuition to be paid in advance.

Board can be obtained in good families from $1.50 to $2.00 per week. There are accomodations in the building for students who wish to board themselves.

Pulaski, Aug. 20, 1861.

  1. A. KING, Secretary.

Management of Academy

Another “higher” school was prob­ably desirable because of the man­ner in which the Academy was or­ganized and managed. The Board of Education would make rental ar­rangement and lease with the prin­cipal. He then was responsible for all expenses, except major repairs, paid the teachers and staff, and he in turn had all the income from state moneys and tuitions and board with which to finance the institution. This business arrangement had definite disadvantages as well as advantages.

This sort of business arrangement meant that the principal had to be a business man as well as teacher. Se­bastian Duffy was principal from 1869 to December 1879 when he sub­leased the Academy to E. M. Wheel­er of Syracuse for the last two terms of his contract and so notified the Board of Education. Mr. Wheeler then remained several years.

The following folder was lent by Miss Ida Hadley: Excerpts.

1870-1871

“Pulaski Academy located on the Rome and Oswego railroad. Scen­ery picturesque, climate healthful, society cultivated and moral. There are four churches, Methodist, Con­gregational, Baptist and Episcopal, one of which every student is ex­pected to attend on the Sabbath. It is organized under the regulations of the Board of Regents with the following trustees and committes. Trustees (See Board of Education list.) Regents committee: Rev. M. V. Willson, Rev. W. Watson, Rev. J. Douglas. Visiting committee: Fifteen prominent citizens (includ­ing G. F. Woodbury, school com­missioner) .

English Department:

Great pains will be taken to give thorough instruction in the common English branches. A teachers class will be formed during the fall term. A limited number of students can enter this class free of charge. Courses of Study:

The Academic

The Preparatory Classical

Commercial

(If students couldn’t afford a full course, they could elect from any de­partment for which they were pre­pared.)

The Academic course comprises all the branches usually taught in academies and seminaries and is little inferior to a full college course. Young ladies and gentlemen who can not afford the time and expense of a complete collegiate education will find that, for the acquisition of men­tal discipline, and practical know­ledge, this scheme of studies will fully meet their demands. Diplomas are conferred on those who have finished the course. Students must have passed the Regents examina­tion in order to enter this course and sustain a satisfactory examination in order to receive an advanced standing.

All the textbooks used in the in­stitution will be kept by the prin­cipal and sold to the students at low rates.

Commercial Department:

Bookkeeping, penmanship and phonography. Young men can fit themselves for business as thorough­ly here as in any Commercial college in existence. The course includes single and double entry bookkeep­ing, banking, railroading, steamboat­ing and all that pertains to book­keeping and business.

The facilities for learning phono­graphy are equal to those in any phonographic institute, comprising the corresponding and reporting styles.

Music:

The department is under the man­agement of an able teacher and in­struction will be given in both in­strumental and vocal music. The in­stitution possesses a superb piano, which is available to those wishing to practice.

Ornamental:

Instruction is given in drawing, pastel and oil painting. Open to all students.

Rhetorical Exercises:

Regular exercises required in elo­cution and (composition.Classes may alsq be formed under the direc­

 

tion of the principal in which spec­ial instruction will be given in the culture and development of the vocal powers.”

Efforts to Combine Schools

At various times efforts were made to combine the schools. In December 1870 the board by resolu­tion decided that all scholars living on the south side of the river between the river and Box street, but not in­cluding Box street, should attend the schools on the north side of the river. The south side school needed repairs in 1882 according to a for­mer student, and they attended the north side.

In May 1883 evidently all pupils attending school on the south side were transferred and placed in the proper departments of the school on the north side as a trial. Miss Farmer, the teacher, was to act as assistant with Mr. Gurley. By Oc­tober 1883 the board asked if the in­habitants of the south side would consent to that school being perma­nently continued with the north side. This plan was not acceptable how­ever, because for the spring term of 1884 the south side petitioned to have their school reopened. This was done with Kate Farmer again teacher.

Courses of Study

Science began to get some atten­tion. A board of education item for September 22, 1884 states that “an articulated skeleton was purchased for $36.00 and a stand for the skel­eton for $7.50.” This must have been the well known “Jenny” (which perished in the fire of 1937)

The faculty lists will help in show­ing how the work varied from year to year. A folder of Pulaski Acad­emy for 1882-1883 has been lent by Miss Katherine Drummond from which the following excerpts are given:

Courses of Study: These are the established courses of study: English, College Entrance, Academic and Commercial. Students whose cir­cumstances forbid their taking a full course can select among the studies of any department for which they are prepared.

Library – Laboratory; The Acad­emy has a well selected Library of several hundred volumes, to which large additions are frequently made. The Laboratory is furnished with every necessary article of apparatus which will be used in the daily reci­tations, and by which all the leading principles of Natural Philosophy and Chemistry will be illustrated.

Discipline: The discipline is mild and seeks to control by moral means rather than by force. A sense of duty and honor, and the more gener­ous impulses of the soul, are mainly relied upon. It is taken for granted that conduct of the student will be that of ladies and gentlemen; that their sole object is to gain know­ledge. A student whose conduct is unworthy a person of honor, or who has any other than the legitimate ob­ject in his attendance, will be re­moved from the school. It will be the aim of the Faculty to infuse into the students a High Moral tone, and impress upon them the great prin­ciples of the Christian Religion.

A Class Book is kept by each in­structor, in which the character of each Student’s recitation is noted by numbers, and all absences from the school exercises are minuted. A summary of these marks is recorded and submitted to the parents at the end of each week or month.

Expenses: Tuition, Common Eng­lish, $6.00; Common and one Higher English, $8.00; Higher English, An­cient and Modern Languages, $10.00; Incidentals, 50c; Instrumental Music, $10.00; Use of Piano, $3.00; Vocal­ization, $10.00; Penmanship, $2.00; Oil Paintings, $10.00; Drawing, Wax Fruit and Flowers, ea., $5.00; Pastelle, Water Colors, each, $5.00; Room Rent, $2.00 to $3.00; Book­keeping, $3.00; Vocal Music, $2.00. Furnished room, $5.00. Board in Academy Boarding Hall, per week, $2.75. For those not desiring Tea and Coffee, $2.50. Five Day Board­ers, $2.00. All bills are payable in advance. All rooms in the Academy are furnished with stoves. Furnished rooms are supplied with all- neces­sary articles save towels, sheets and pillow cases. Wood can be furnish­ed to students rooming in the Acad­emy at market prices. Students de­siring rooms in the Academy, or in town, with or without board, should apply at once. For particulars ad­dress Prof. E. M. Wheeler, Prin.

Union School Movement

The growth of the union free school movement throughout the state and nation must have been re­sponsible in part for the next great change. On May 16, 1888 Miss Ida Griffin, school commissioner of this district, met with the Board of Edu­cation to discuss the advisability of a union free school with an academic department.

Perhaps also the school building at Church and Bridge streets was showing signs of age. It had been built for a Congregational church in 1829. A, committee of the board had been appointed in March 1888 to consider the matter of disposing of the graded school property and se­lecting a new site for a school build­ing.

A change was anticipated for on May 14, 1889 the Board of Education decided to lease the Academy no longer, but to manage it themselves and to pay the salaries of the teach­ers.

The “Academy Quarterly” for December 1890, a school student publication, gave a careful analysis of the situation as follows: The for­mation of a union free school is to be recommended. Among the argu­ments favoring it is that the finan­cial burden would not be greater, perhaps less. The Academy has not belonged to the regular public school system and has not received a share of the state money. Legislative ac­tion would be needed, a bill to be submitted to form a Union Free School with an academic department.”

As a result of various influences the change was made in 1892 where­by the charter of the Pulaski Acad­emy was revoked by the State Legis­lature and the Pulaski Union School and Academy was organized, a union free school system. The days of the boarding school and privately supported institution were gone.

 

Pulaski Academy and Union School

The third period in Pulaski educa­tion extended from the formation of the Pulaski Union Free School Dis­trict No. 7 in 1892 to the date of centralization in February 1938. These forty-six years marked a steady growth for the village. The population in 1895 was 1517; the census of 1930 gave 2046. The number of school children to be edu­cated increased in due proportion.

 

Changing Civilization

The period covering the last of the 1890’s and the first third of this century has never been equalled in world history for ipvenltions, pro­gress, and higher standards of living for the people of the United States. The automobiles and improved roads have brought the rural areas and the larger communities together, making their problems and their wants more in common. The radio and the mo­tion picture, with aviation and the automobile have annihlated dis­tances. They have made the school generation of today need, more than any other generation has ever need­ed, to be able to cope with a chang­ing civilization.

Schools and Change

As New York state and the nation began to provide better facilities, broader courses of study, extra-cur­ricular activities, and better trained personnel for their school children, so did Pulaski and its surrounding area want to provide these same ad­vantages for their children. Rural students began in increasing num­bers to attend the Pulaski school where better facilities were) avail­able.

 

 

Increased High School Registration

It is interesting to note how the trend for higher education through­out the United States is reflected m our own local history. According to a 1935 report of the United States Commissioner of Education high school enrollment within a period of thirty years increased from a little over 10% of the United States popu­lation of high school age to more than 60% of that population. The list of Pulaski Academy graduates will show how the number began to increase materially after the first decade and a half of this century. This increase was due not just to a larger village, but due more to the fact that students stayed in school longer, not leaving as soon as the age limit was reached. This was also due to inability to get work.

Arbitrarily taking the years from 1868 to June 1936, a period of sixty-eight years, there were, according to the Academy handbook, 1099 stu­dents graduated from the Academy and high school. 550 of these grad­uated during the first fifty-four years. 549 graduated during the last fourteen years of that period, or ap­proximately as many as in the fiftyfour years.

Large classes were graduated in 1937 and 1938. With an enlarged central district there will be an in­creased enrollment from which the graduating classes will be drawn.

Local supervision of all the school districts now making up the central school district had been under Joseph M. Bonner, District Superin­tendent of Schools, District No. 2, Oswego County from 1911, when that office was created, to the date of his death. This occurred May 27, 1939, preventing his participation in the cornerstone laying ceremonies of of the new school, scheduled for June 29, 1939.

First Annex, 1908

The 1906 Conscripturn Annum tells the story of how the school population first outgrew its building. Increased requirements of the state department of education and the in­crease of non-resident students had taxed its capacity to the utmost. Principal C. M. Bean and the stud­ent body were keenly interested in the proposed annex.

On March 9, 1906 the citizens made their will known by a vote of 262 to 17 to make an appropraition of $16,000 for an annex and neces­sary changes. The total sum spent was about $21,000. But those who were in school during and after its building heartily vouch for the wis­dom of the investment. This two story brick addition, to the east, housed four grades on the first floor. On the second were a large study hall and two academic class rooms. This additional space relieved the congestion and sufficed for nearly twenty years.

Dedicatory program October 19, 1906: Music, piano solo, Miss Noyes;

dedicatory prayer, Rev. J. B. Felt; music, vocal solo, Miss Roberston; address, In Behalf of Board of Ed­ucation, N. B. Smith, E-sq.; address, In Behalf of Faculty, Prin. C. M. Bean; address, In Behalf of Stu­dents, Miss Elida Petrie; music, piano duet, Miss Seamans and Miss Dodge; address, From the Rural to the High School, School Commis­sioner H. W. Kandt; address, In Be­half of the Alumni, Norman E. Bent­ley, Esq.; music, vocal solo, Miss Guile; address, In Behalf of Citizens, Hon. S. C. Huntington; address, The Public Schools and the Public Con­science, Rev. C II. Guile; ode, To Our Annex, Mrs. Minnie Seamans Peck; music, The Old and the New, high school chorus; benediction, Rev. J. Otis Ward.

Second Expansion, 1925

By 1924 however it was again necessary to expand. State educa­tion department requirements, add­ed departments, extra-curricular activities, particularly dramatics and athletics, and a continued enlarging enrollment needed more space. Thus it was that in July 1924, the citizens of district No. 7 voted an appropria­tion for another addition.

The 4Crimson and Blue’ Christmas number of 1925 gives an interesting description of the dedication of the 1925 annex. 44 ‘Open school’ was celebrated at Pulaski, Friday, Octo­ber 30, to formally dedicate the new auditorium-library annex.

44Dr. Bernard Clausen of Syracuse was the principal speaker. Rev. E, Scott of Pulaski gave the invoca­tion; Principal I. R. Gladstone made a welcoming speech; J. M. Bonner, Supt. of Schools of Second District responded; Mrs. W. E. Griffis spoke for the Alumni of this school, and Dr. A. W. Skinner represented the State Departmn ti of Education. There was a vocal solo by Miss Sally Butterworth, a selection by the Girls’ Glee club and a duet by Miss Jakway and Miss Mallette.

“After this formal program, the whole building was opened and the guests were invited to visit the var­ious rooms. Punch was served by the faculty.

“The annex to the old building gives Pulaski added facilities equal to those enjoyed by other modern schools throughout the state. The seating capacity of the auditorium is about five hundred and it serves as a social center for functions of educational and entertaining nature as well as for athletic contests.

“The new library was formally opened Tuesday evening, October 20, by an address on books by Dr. W. E. Griffis.

“The Isaac Price Douglass Library occupied the south end of the room. The rest is filled with books from the old library and some recently added ones. We have an unusually com­plete collection of history, biography and sociology. At present, we lack a sufficient number of books of mod­ern fiction and drama, but we expect to supply that need very soon. We enjoy a well balanced shelf of mag­azines, including the ‘Literary Di­gest’, the ‘Outlook’, the ‘Scientific American,’ the ‘World’s Work’, the ‘National Geographic’, and the ‘Men­tor’ which has been added to the per­iodical section in place of the ‘Atlan­tic Monthly.’

“The library room is furnished with oak chairs and tables, and there is a fireplace at each end. This room will seat about fifty and the towns­people are cordially invited to utilize the splendid opportunities the li­brary offers.”

This auditorium-library annex again served to relieve congestion. It was built of brick, and joined the

Academy building on the south. It provided an assembly room usable as an auditorium or for athletic games and a spacious library room. On the second floor were class rooms for the seventh and eighth grades. The first recorded use is on June 5, 1925 when the “Academy Auditor­ium” was used for the fifth inter­scholastic prize speaking contest. The class of 1925 was the first able to hold its commencement exercises in its own building. Fortunately this auditorium-library annex escaped severe damage from the December 1937 fire.

Old! Sites

The two sites given up in 1892 have been put to other uses. The Salina street brick building was sold and since has been used as a dwell­ing house, the maple tree still shad­ing its roof. The corner at Bridge and Church streets has given many years service as a tennis court. It was so being used in the early 1900’s. The Pulaski Democrat of October 4, 1922 states how the Meacham Ten­nis Club had incorporated in Sep­tember 1922 “to own and to main­tain” a tennis court. D. B. Meacham, a benefactor of Pulaski school, had bought the lot of W. J. Peach. Mr. Peach after purchasing the lot of the Board of Education had given its use for tennis. Mr. Meacham gave the lot to Meacham Tennis Club, Inc. in addition to other money for use of the club. Many school students still spend wholesome hours at that old school site.

Janitorial Force

A community working together in a school building is made up of stu­dents, faculty, and a third influence, the janitor or caretaker. He plays a larger part in character development of students than is sometimes real­ized. It is he who helps train in habits of good citizenship, hon­esty, courtesy, proper care for public buildings, and respect for the prop­erty and rights of groups and of in­dividuals.

Since 1892 that responsibility has been assumed by George Cole, Alon­zo Flagg and Andrew Price. Clay­ton Ingersoll is the present care­taker having served since 1929.

Growth in Size of Faculty

It would take many pages to re­cord the progress made by the Acad­emy and Union School from 1892 to 1938. One measure of its growth in curricular and extra curricular activ­ities is recorded in the increase in faculty members. In 1892 the facul­ty numbered eight; at the turn of the century, eleven; in 1915, fifteen; in 1929-1930, twenty-four, and in 1937-1938, twenty-nine before cen­tralization was effective.

Centralization

The new central school district, formed in February 1938, is known officially as Central School District No. 1, Towns of Richland, Sandy Creek and Albion, Oswego County, New York. It is composed of the Pulaski Union Free School District No. 7, Town of Richland and Com­mon School Districts Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18 of the Town of Richland, District No. 3 of the Town of Sandy Creek, and District No. 9 of the Town of Albion.

The grouping of small rural schools into larger units, having bet­ter facilities and better trained per­sonnel than the small school could afford, had become a growing move­ment over much of the United States during the first third of this century. As these larger school units spread over New York state, the question of forming such a unit for Pulaski and vicinity was discussed for a number of years.

As sometimes happens, unforeseen circumstances precipitated action. After the fire of December 9, 1937, which completely destroyed the main academy building and 1906 annex, the question of housing the students was of immediate concern. The question of permanent quarters had to be considered also. Temporary provision was promptly made pos­sible. Quoting from the 1938-39 Handbook, “Through the whole­hearted cooperation of citizens, churches, fraternal and civic organi­zations, students and teachers, school was resumed in temporary quarters after a loss of only two days for grade children and three days for high school students. Immediately following the loss of the school the Board of Education went to work making plans for its replacement with a new and modern, fire-resist­ing structure.”

Temporary Housing

Temporary housing was accom­plished by school being held in dif­ferent buildings of the village and in the 1925 school annex that survived the fire.

The high school was housed in buildings near Washington Park (North Park); the Methodist Church House for study hall and classes; the Grange Hall for the agricultural de­partment and classes; the old post office for commercial work and other classes; the Macy block for shop work; the Meacham Community Center for home economics.

The grades were distributed as follows: kindergarten in the Ameri­can Legion House; first grade in the basement parlor of the Congrega­tional Church; second grade in the Baptist Church session room; third grade in the Masonic Temple; fourth grade, Schneider’s garage; fifth grade, American Legion house; sixth grade in the Episcopal Parish house, and seventh and eighth grades in the 1925 annex that did not burn. Two sections of the two latter grades were accommodated by an extra classroom put in the south end of the library and another in the upper hall. Another school room was lo­cated on the first floor of the Macy block where children who had been absent or needed other help received special attention. Children were called to school by the tolling of the Methodist Church bell.

On the fourteenth of February, 1938, eighteen common school dis­tricts in the area adjacent to Pu­laski voted to unite with Union Free School District Number 7 of the Vil­lage of Pulaski to form Central School District Number 1. The popu­lar name for the enlarged district will be Pulaski Academy and Central School.

The names of the board members under whose regime this change is taking place will be found in the compiled list of boards of education. Under the heading of Faculties will be found the names of the enlarged corps of teachers who in 19 3 8-19 3 9 are working under temporary condi­tions and handicapped with lack of usual facilities.

As this school year draws to a close, mingled emotions must come to the two upper classes. The gradu­ates of June 193 9 realize that while as undergraduates they will never tread the halls of the new school building, nevertheless they have glo­rious memories of the old Academy. The class of 1940, however, can hope for and anticipate spending the clos­ing days of their senior year in the new building. It is they who will start the graduation traditions of another period, the fourth, in Pulaski education.

School Commissioners and District Superintendents

The list of school commissioners and district superintendents whose areas included Pulaski village is not complete chronologically.

In 1866 Pulaski was a part of the 3rd Commissioner’s District of Os­wego County with Orville A. Forbes, School Commissioner. From him Mrs. Clarence Keyes received her cer­tificate to teach. Mr. George Wood­bury of Orwell served fifteen years and from him Simeon R. Trumbull received his certificate. Later a Ben. J. Cole of Sandy Creek was commis­sioner; in 18 85, a J. B. Cole, Williamstown; in 188 8 Miss Ida Griffin, and during the late 18 90’s , C. Edward Jones, a Pulaski graduate of 18 83. March 1901 was the begin­ning of the work of H. Irving Pratt as Commissioner of the 3rd District. He was followed by Herman W. Kandt, elected in 1905, and who was a Pulaski T. C. graduate of 1899. L. Carl Sargent followed for a short period.

The year 1911 was the date of county school district reorganization and Pulaski became and still is a part of the 2nd district. Joseph M. Bonner was chosen as the first dis­trict superintendent of schools and served till his death in May 193 9.

Academic Course

No longer is a high school a place for traditional education only. Never­theless it is still true that a large percentage of students do take reg­ular academic courses. It is the tra­ditional classical and cultural course, and leads to a college entrance di­ploma and is required by most in­stitutions of higher learning. How­ever the academic course has broad­ened and changed through the years and has become in some measure more adapted to the needs of the present generation.

Each of the various departments merits a complete history of its de­velopment and of its activities from the date of its founding. It will be possible here to indicate only briefly what the major changes have been from year to year.

One step that has been of consid­erable importance is that of free textbooks. Since September 1937 from the kindergarten through the high school the board of education has supplied free textbooks to all children.

Music

Of all the major departments of 1937-38 none furnished more pleas­ure to its students than that of music. If education is to prepare children for a wise use of their leis­ure time, no subject is more valu­able than music with its various activities.

Music has become an integral part of school life, not a thing apart. The children of today are privileged in opportunities beyond the imagina­tion of past decades. Radio pro­grams and sound motion pictures have given them almost speaking ac­quaintance with great artists. Our own school is providing a varied program of activities in its bands, orchestras, glee cubs, group singing and various musical productions.

One of the early references by students to music is made in the Academy Quarterly of December 1890 when mention is made of a glee club under Miss Green, com­posed of fifteen more or less enthus­iastic members. No punctuation marks help to interpret the ‘more or less/ whether limiting the member­ship or the enthusiasm.

The fundamentals of music,? as­sembly singing and operettas were taught throughout the grades by the grade teachers for many years, or by some teacher who seemed partic­ularly fitted for it. Later a combin­ation of talent was called for in teacher preparation by employment of a high school teacher who could and would teach music and drawing in the grades.

As the years passed by, more and more attention was given to music, but the emphasis varied from time to time with interest or talent of principal and teachers. In 1920 and 1921 another movement put new life and zeal into the depart­ment. This was inspired by the music festival held at the Oswego State Normal School in May 1921. The girls’ glee club and the orches­tra appeared on that program. That winter the orchestra had had especial preparation by performing at var­ious entertainments given by the school in Hohmjan’s Opera House. The Oswego County music festival has become an annual affair, in which the orchestra, glee clubs and band participate on a non-competi­tive basis. The interscholastic sec­tional and state meets for the music groups provide a deep incentive for hard work and good performance.

The most recent development be­gan in 1931 at which time special work was begun in concert band work. Quoting from the 1938-1939 handbook “. . . . more than 120

students of the Central school are receiving! valuable training in this department of music. As a result of the splendid cooperation of the Vil­lage of Pulaski, an arrangement has been made whereby the Academy band provides outdoor summer con­certs for the village, the proceeds from which are used to defray a part of the instruction cost of stu­dents in this department. Such an arrangement makes it possible for any student to pursue this line of in­struction free of any charge.” The band association has considerable equipment, many instruments and 61 complete uniforms. Many civic andl school functions have given add­ed pleasure because of the participa­tion of the band.

Commercial Course

During the early days of the Acad­emy, while the emphasis was decid­edly on the classical, nevertheless subjects of a practical nature were included. As early as the 1860’s some commercial subjects were a a part of the Academy curriculum. In 1880-81 much emphasis was placed upon the regular commercial course because the teacher was an “accountant.” In fact separate com­mercial subjects were taught prob­ably every year up to the date when a complete course was organized.

By 1927 the need for more general knowledge of business fundamentals and the trend toward preparation for a vocation led to the establishment of a commercial course with aca­demic rating. Students graduating from this course are able to complete a regular business school course in a shorter time. Particularly apt students should be able at once to take business positions as stenog­rapher or bookkeeper. This course has proved very practical in provid­ing electives for the regular academic course students. Up-to-date equip­ment of typewriters, adding machine, duplicating machine and furnishings give a business atmosphere sufficient to intrigue any student taking the course.

Agriculture

The year 1913 dates the inaugura­tion of a regular academic course of study in agriculture. In April 1913 this far-reaching, progressive step was voted and from its inception it has been a highly successful, practi­cal and popular department of the curriculum. Students now complet­ing the course are granted an aca­demic diploma in vocational agricul­ture. This satisfies the entrance re­quirements for various higher insti­tutions.

The agricultural department has been privileged to have unusual as­sistance and interest from Captain and Mrs. Hugh Barclay. At their estate, Douglaston Manor, for two years young “ag” students from Os­wego and Jefferson Counties have had rare opportunities for live stock and poultry judging under the most ideal arrangements. While they will be unable to duplicate these high standards when they go out into practical farm” life, nevertheless the experiences are invaluable to them.

In addition, Captain and Mrs. Bar­clay are giving annually in memory of Mrs. Barclay’s mother, the Mrs. Harry A. Moody Agricultural award. This sum of fifty dollars is appor­tioned into three prizes of twenty- five, fifteen and ten dollars.

The State Association of Young Farmers of New York is affiliated with the national organization of Future Farmers of America. Through this state organization many extra­curricular activities are carried on. A local club has been called the O. B. Trowbridge Agricultural Club, hon­oring the first teacher of the depart­ment.. Mr. B. C. Snyder has effic­iently guided the work of the de­partment since 1929.

Kindergarten

New departments were not con­fined to the academic field. In 1925 the first kindergarten work, as a separate department, was started. Effort had been made, particularly in 1913, by a group of Pulaski women, but the movement failed at that time, because of lack of space and funds. With the additional space available in the spring of 1925 by the completion of the auditorium- library annex, it was possible for Principal Irving R. Gladstone to make a practical appeal for the kindergarten. The new department was launched and has contributed greatly to the lives of the youngest school children.

Home Economics

The home making and home eco­nomics course was started in 193 7 and was just nicely functioning when the Academy burned. The course has since been carried on through the home surroundings and facilities of the Meacham Commu­nity House. A home making aca­demic diploma will be issued to girls taking a prescribed course. Such diploma qualifies for entrance into many home economic colleges. Schools of nursing also recommend home making courses for girls plan­ning on entering the nursing profes­sion.

Health Program

The schools for many years had taken some measure of health super­vision. But the medical inspections of millions of young men during the World War years gave statistics that showed much more needed to be done. State departments of educa­tion and the schools gradually adopted broader and better health programs.

This improved health education program was encouraged by the Pu­laski Board of Education, and more attention was paid to all phases of it. Since 1934 the student body has had the services of a school nurse available for regular inspection, for first aid, and for advice to students, teachers and parents. The first school nurse, Miss Rose, thus stated her duty, “To help secure maximum health for every school child through his own intelligent cooperation and that of all others who control his en­vironment.”

Quoting from the 193 8-3 9 Acad­emy Handbook, “The dental hygien­ist assists the school nurse in health control. It is her duty to inspect and clean the teeth of all children in the Central School system at least once per year. She advises by notes to parents when work by a dentist is advisable. Students are advised to go to their family dentist when regu­lar dental work is necessary.”

The school physician has a most responsible position to fill. Under his supervision smallpox vaccinations are given, the toxin-antitoxin diph­theria campaign is carried out, eye examinations are held, and other kinds of preventive work promoted.

According to Dr. A. G. Dunbar, school physician for over a decade, preventive measures have helped progressively as the years go by. Physical examinations show up ma­terially less defects than twenty or ten years ago. Since 19 24 there has been no case of diphtheria in the township or village, a remarkable record. The old adage is very true, “An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.”

Athletics

If the frequency of news items in school publications or in the press were the chief measure of the im­portance of activities in a school pro­gram, then athletics would stand at the head of the list. To do the sub­ject justice is impossible in a short space. High lights arranged chrono­logically, however, would show from year to year the importance of differ­ent phases of physical training and athletics. Sports, contests and games contribute immeasurably to charac­ter building through ideals of good sportsmanship, and they provide an outlet for leisure time activities.

From early academy days football and baseball have been major sports. Basketball was delayed for lack of a place to play, but in 1918 it was pos­sible to get the Courthouse and boys’ and girls’ teams have played for over twenty years. A recent state educa­tion ruling has discouraged girls’ teams.

The following list of trophies and awards which are in the trophy case and library show the high rank that sports have attained.

Baseball champions, cup, 1927; Baseball champions, Oswego-Jeffer­son County League, cup, 1927-28-29; Baseball champions, Oswego-Jeffer- son County League, Reach Trophy, cup, 1928; Baseball champions, Os- wego-Jefferson County League, cup, 1929; Baseball champions, Harold’s Sport Shop Trophy, statue, 1930; Baseball champions, Spaulding Tro­phy, cup, 1932; Baseball champions, Oswego-Jefferson County League, cup, 1930-32-34; Baseball cham­pions, statue, 1936; Baseball cham­pions, statue, 1938.

Basketball: Boys’ champions, Os­wego County League, cup, 1925-26- 27-28; Boys’ champions, statue, 1930-31; Girls’ champions, Capt. Johnson Trophy, cup, 1930; Girls’ champions, Oswego-Jefferson County League, cup, 1930; Girls’ champions, Cahill Trophy, statue, 1530-31; Girls’ champions, banner, 193 7-38.

Cross Country champions, Central N. Y. Pulaski Chamber of Commerce, cup, 192 7; Cross Country champions, Central New York, cup, 1928; Cross Country Run Thanksgiving Day, Os wego Palladium Trophy, statue, 1925-27-28; Cross Country Run, Os­wego County Association, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Alumni Trophy, cup, 1927-28-29.

Block letters are awarded by the Student Council as the executive body of the Student Association. These letters have been awarded for athletic merit on recommendation of the coach. For meritorious achieve­ment in music letters are awarded on recommendation made by the band and music directors.

The Library

The library, for over forty years of the Academy’s existence, did not play as large a part in the student’s life and in the planning of the courses of study as today. With less emphasis on science and history the kind of study now called research and collateral reading was at a mini­mum. The curriculum broad­ened and the classical course of study expanded to include new suo- jects. Likewise the methods of teaching changed. Less memoriza­tion was required and instead a wider acquaintance in any certain field was asked. Theoretically and practically, emphasis turned from memory work to thought and reasoning in an en­riched curriculum.

With this change in educational procedure came the need for better library facilities. Often the Academy students had depended upon the re­sources of the principal’s library to give them their needed supplemen­tary reading. Consequently this source varied from year to year. One notation was found of 1870-71 stat­ing that “the library consists of sev­eral hundred volumes to which large additions have recently been made.”

 

A student of the 80’s however recalls the library as consisting of “some books on a shelf.”

The Academy Quarterly of Dec. 1890 stated ‘That several volumes of standard works have been added during the past year. The library room is also used as a reading room, and will be supplied with some of the best current literature, ‘me princi­pal’s private library is accessible to students. Some of the students have brought magazines and papers, all of which have proved very interesting.” Whatever may have been the incen­tive, the proceeds of the December ’9 0 Quarterly were used to purchase books for the library.

The ’90’s mark the beginning in library growth and interest. The Conscriptum Annum for ’9 8 states that in 18 9 7 the Regents offered to duplicate the sum of $500 which should be raised by any school for its library. On an appeal to stu­dents $150 was raised and the citi­zens also responded. As a result, a library of 1,000 volumes was made available and its formal presentation took place on commencement night. To Principal George M. Davison wa» given much credit for “his intelligent and persevering efforts.”

The growth continued. In 18 9 9 the number of volumes numbered 1,600; in 1900 there were 2,000, and in 1901 another gain to 2,400 vol­umes. A statement of 1906 gave the interesting item that the circulation had averaged more than 3,000 vol­umes a year. A room south of the principal’s office was the library room and on certain hours a week books could be drawn. By 190 9 the expansion to 2,900 volumes neces­sitated a larger room. This was fitted up on the first door to the left of the main stairway, and a new catalog and decimal system were started.

The Conscriptum Annum of 1911 contains the description of the Doug­lass Memorial Library. This was given by Mrs. Anna Douglass Moody in memory of her father, Isaac Price Douglass, who was at one time a stu­dent at Pulaski Academy. This was a library of about five hundred richly bound volumes of standard books.

Miss Dorothy Moody supplemented that library with a gift of 75 books of juvenile fiction. For their housing Mrs. Moody equipped and furnished a room to serve also as a reading room, south of the principal’s office. At the time of the building of the 19 25 annex, this library and furnish­ings were placed in the south cove of the new library room.

An important notation of 1913 stated that each grade and class room had supplementary and refer­ence books. This was a decided as­set for grade teachers and children.

Quoting from the Handbook for ’3 8-3 9: “There are available for cir­culation over 3,5 00 volumes of stand­ard works of literature, travel, biog­raphy, history, science, and fiction, in addition to various types of period­icals. The annual appropriation for the library is approximately $650. The library room, furnished with oak chairs and tables, will seat fifty peo­ple. It is open to students and to the public.”

School Publications

The urge of young people to write and to publish is one that early was given opportunity to develoi>. Mention of school publications is not found in the early days, with this one exception, that the August 1890 Academian, referred to an Academy paper written about 1861.

Two publications in the 9 0’s have been valuable sources of information for this present book, and mention is made of them elsewhere. The Academian of August 18 9 0 was the last, perhaps the only number by that name, and the proceeds were used for a dynamo for the physics class. The Academy Quarterly, Yol I, No. 1, was issued in December 18 90. Its proceeds were used for the library.

The next publication, “The Con­scriptum Annum,” had a life span extending from June 18 93 through June 1917. “The Annual,” as it was often called, was a combination of a students’ year book and a school hand book. From its pages have been culled innumerable items of statistical and personal interest. It is with regret that space prevents using many other items. A June number of 1918 was not issued be­cause of the war.

The school publication that ap­peared after the war was the “Crim­son and Blue,” Yol. 1, No. 1, appear­ing in January 1919 as a four-page printed news sheet. The second and third numbers had eight pages. It was later planned for three issues a school year, Christmas, Easter and in June. The June 1919 Commence­ment issue was the first bound copy. Beginning in 1930, the Commence­ment number only has been issued, and it has become the year book or “Annual,” a senior class publication. The Commencement number of 1935 was given first class honor rating by the National Scholastic Press Asso­ciation. Plans are under way for the 1939 Commencement issue.

“The “What Not,” the school newspaper, began with Vol. I, No. 1, dated November 15, 1929. Its eight to ten numbers a year give interest­ing items of school activities, social events and news of the day. It can be called the school “pep paper.” During the two years, 1936-38, its items were printed as a section of the weekly paper, the Pulaski Demo­crat. In 1938-39 it has been printed again, Vol. VIII, as a separate news sheet. In 1932 it was given third place by the Columbia Scholastic Press Association.

Pulaski Academy Alumni Association

In the early days of the Academy, students came and went, at their will, and there were no formal com­mencement days with granting of diplomas to signify the completion of a certain course of study. Thus it is that the official school handbook cannot begin its list of graduates until the year 1868.

Fortunate are we, now that the days of the Union School and Acad­emy are over, that there were gradu­ates of vision and foresight who in the 1880’s began to think and to talk about joining the graduates to­gether in a permanent organization.

Miss Ida Hadley has a printed in­vitation of which a copy follows: Pulaski, N. Y., Dec. 23, 1889

An informal meeting of graduates of Pulaski Academy to organize an

Alumni Association was held Decem­ber 19, 1889. A meeting for a per­manent organization will be held in the Academy Chapel on Thursday, January 2, 1890. A large number of alumni are expected to be present. You are cordially invited to attend. Any communication from you or any assistance you can render the com­mittee will be very acceptable.

  1. H. Naylor,
  2. G. Whitney,

Miss Belle Calkins,

Committee

Mrs. Harriet Hollis Damon was present and vividly recalls the pre­liminary meeting of December 1889, held on the second floor of the Acad­emy, in the rooms with the double doors. Edgar Coit Morris and Tom Hayden were moving spirits. At the January 1890 organization meeting in the chapel S. C. Huntington, Jr., was elected first president. The class of 1868 was found to be the earliest list available of which class William

  1. Austin was valedictorian. At this Jan. 2, 1890 meeting, a consti­tution was adopted with the provi­sion that the annual meeting be held the fourth week day after Christmas of each year.

The first annual meeting was held on Dec. 30, 1890 in the Academy Chapel, at which time the president, S. C. Huntington, Jr., presided. E. Coit Morris was elected president for the ensuing year. One article of the constitution had provided that the annual meeting would be fol­lowed by a banquet. This first ban­quet was served by Don C. Bishop, at the Academy, still a private insti­tution and boarding school.

The Pulaski Democrat of January

I, 1891, gives an account of this first annual meeting of the Pulaski Academy Alumni Association held on Tuesday evening, December 30, 1890. The following excerpts will give some of its highlights:

“Last evening, Tuesday, one of the most interesting gatherings ever held in Pulaski Academy was celebrated. It was the first annual meeting of the alumni of that institution.

Forty-three persons sat down to the banquet. Among the honorary members present were, Hon. N. B.

Smith, Mrs. N. W. Peckham, Prof. W.

  1. Gorman, Miss Green and Miss Cruttenden. The earlier classes were represented by Mr. W. H. Austin and Mrs. Austin ’6 8, S. C. Hunting- ton, Jr., Miss Huntington and Miss Ella Hadley ’71, George W. Douglas ’74 and Mrs. Douglas and Miss Ella
  2. Brown ’77.

Officers elected at business meet­ing: president, Prof. E. Coit Morris ’85; 1st vice president, Wm. H. Austin ’68; 2nd vice president, Mrs. Emma Fenton Hoyt ’76; 3rd vice president, Rev. Wesley W. Cole ’83; recording secretary, Miss Nannie Dixon ’8 8; corresponding secretary, Miss Hattie Doane ’8 9; treasurer,

  1. W. Parkhurst ’8 9. Executive com­mittee for two years: Miss S. Frances King ’85, Miss Hattie Doane ’89, Dr. Frank A. Box ’85, F. Elbert Jones ’87.

After the business session had terminated a fine banquet was served under the supervision of the caterer, Don C. Bishop.

After the banquet, which was greatly enjoyed, came the literary and social part of the feast. This was as follows:

Toasts: Toastmaster, S. C. Hunt­ington, Jr. ’71—So comes a reckon­ing when the banquet’s o’er, The dreadful reckoning—and men smile no more; Oration, T. E. Hayden ’85; Essay, Mrs. W. H. Austin ’68; Poem,

  1. Coit Morris ’85; The Association,
  2. H. Naylor ’88—“To be, or not to be, that is the question”; Our Acad­emy, Its Past, Hon N. B. Smith—■ “Accursed be he who moves my bones”; Our Academy, Its Future,
  3. E. Jones ’8 7—“ ’Tis not in mortals to command success, But we’ll do more, Sempronius, we’ll deserve it”; The First Class, Miss Sarah E. Had­ley ’71—“We have an arrow that will find its mark”; The Faculty, Prof. W. C. Gorman—“I can easier, Teach twenty what were good to be done, than, To be one of the twenty to follow, My own teaching”; Old School Days, Miss L. Grace Hender­son ’8 8—“I love everything that’s old—old friends, old times, old manners, old books”; The Ideal Woman, Herbert Calkins ’8 6—“To love her is a liberal education”; The

Ideal Man, Miss Minnie J. Seamans ’84—“There’s no trust, no faith, no honesty, in men”; Closing Hymn, tune: America—In this our school­room dear, May we all meet next year, And greet each one, A welcome kind and true, We’ll give to all of you—, Our youthful days renew, By meeting here, (two stanzas), Minnie J. Seamans.

From the banquet program of 1892 lent by Mrs. F. Earle McChesney (Ruth Austin) is given the toast list of the third annual banquet. It is with regret that any portion of the program, with its decorative printing and arrangement, is omitted:

Pulaski Academy Alumni Associa­tion, Pulaski House, December 29, 18 92, Third Annual Banquet; toast­master, Mr. Hayden; Toasts: Our

Academy—Its Record, Miss Harriet Hollis; Our Academy and Prof. Wheeler, Miss Whitehouse; Music, Orchestra; Our Academy and Union School, Mr. Dixon; Our Academy, Its Future, Miss Minnie Seamans; Music, Orchestra; Our Academy—Its Fac­ulty, Mr. Shear; Our Academy—Its Board of Trustees, Dr. Kelley; Music, Orchestra; Our Academy—Its Boys, Miss Harriet Doane; Our Academy— Its Girls, Mr. Bentley; Our Academy —The Close of the Old Regime, Mr. Low; Our Academy and Christopher Columbus, Mr. Morris.

Occasional changes were made to the constitution as indicated by the amended qualifications for member­ship as of Dec. 29, 1892 which read: “The active members shall consist of all persons who have completed a course of study in Pulaski Academy or Pulaski Union Free School such as entitles them to a diploma at the time of the completion of such course.”

The Board of Education require­ments for graduation were stated thus in the 18 93 Conscriptum An­num . . . “To be a candidate for graduation, a student must be en­titled to a Regents diploma, must have completed all the required work of the institution in that course, and must be in good standing in the school.” In 1910 this clause is found added in the Conscriptum An­num: the proposed graduate “must have written and had approved an essay or an oration.”

Graduation for many years after 1893 depended entirely upon Regents counts. Counts were credits awarded upon the completion of certain sub­jects by passing the Regents exami­nations. Here, perhaps, is the op­portune time to describe more fully just what is meant by Regents. The Board of Regents of the University of the State of New York was ap­pointed in 178 7 as the governing body of the schools of the state. The word “University” in this connection does not mean an institution with buildings and faculty, but it is the educational system of the state. Therefore when the term Regents is used in connection with examinations or other requirements it means the requirements of the governing board of the state school system.

The Pulaski Board of Education modified this Regents Academic di­ploma requirement for graduation in action taken by it on June 17, 1912, whereby it authorized “the president and secretary of the Pu­laski Board of Education to sign diplomas of graduates when certified by the principal, and the require­ments therefor shall be an academic diploma (Regents diploma) or a class standing of 80 % maintained during the Senior year.” In addition to this was the requirement of the essay or oration. That requirement has since been modified.

By the awarding of School Di­plomas, in addition to the Academic or Regents Diplomas, the roster of graduates thereafter included stu­dents who had completed satisfactory school work but for various reasons had not tried or had not passed the Regents state examinations. This was a decided change and much dis­cussion was aroused as to whether the action would be retroactive. This would have allowed former stu­dents who had gone through the graduation exercises, but had then failed by a few counts to get their Academic Diploma, to receive a school diploma, to become an alum­nus, and to belong to the Alumni Association.

At the present time a school di­ploma will be given to a senior com­pleting satisfactory work, is in good standing in the school and approved by the principal. The passing grade is 75% except in Regents and final examinations when the passing grade is 65%.

From year to year the Alumni Association grew and as an organi­zation it gave of its interest and support. During the early 1900’s they contributed to the various class and grade rooms copies of paintings, various other pictures and busts. A fund was started in 193 2 for the pur­chase of a suitable cabinet to house the various trophy awards won for scholastic, vocational and athletic merit. This purchase was made pos­sible sooner than otherwise by financial assistance from the Board of Education. Fortunately the cabi­net and trophies in the hall outside the library were saved from the 1937 fire.

At the June 1932 annual meeting, a silver loving cup was presented to the association and called the Alta Maltby Austin attendance cup. This cup is awarded to that class which has the largest percentage of living members present at each annual meeting and the class name is en­graved on the cup. The classes so far having won the cup for attend­ance are: Annual Meeting of 1932, Class of 1896; 1933, Class of 1903; 1934, Class of 1909; 1935, Class of 1908; 1936, Classes of 1908-1909; 1937, Class of 1908; 1938, Class of 1898.

A compilation and printing of the alumni association programs for the almost fifty years of its existence would in themselves reveal much of the customs and the atmosphere of the past half century. What is more indicative of an era than its menus, whether they be “feasts for the soul” or for the material man?

From the second alumni banquet program of December 30, 1891, also lent by Mrs. McChesney (Ruth Austin) is copied the menu. This was served at the Salmon River House.

Menu: Chesapeake Bay Select;

Soup: Consomme a la Colburt;

Roasts: Young Turkey, Cranberry

Sauce, Young Duck, Crab Apple Jelly; Cold Meats: Cincinnati Ham, Chicken; Vegetables: Mashed Pota­toes, Plain Potatoes, French Peas; Salad: Chicken, Mayonnaise Dress­ing, Celery; Dessert: Fancy Ice

Creams, Sherry Wine Jelly, Assorted Cakes, Florida Oranges, Nuts and Raisins; Lemonade, Dinner Coffee.

Let us read again, quoting from the Conscriptum Annum of 1894, part of the report of the fourth an­nual meeting held December 29, 1893.

“The Alumni of the Pulaski Acad­emy enjoyed a triumph on the eve­ning of December 29, 1893 in the spacious dining hall of mine host Springsteen. Those who sent regrets showed a good degree of interest in their Alma Mater by the way of very acceptable gifts.” New officers were elected, Norman Bentley being chosen president. At nine o’clock strains of sweet music announced that the collation was spread, and the merry guests soon found places about the tables arranged in a square. In the open court before us flowers were artistically arranged and at a short distance a harp, violin the flute vied with the music of the spheres. After both a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the menu, came the feast of reason and the flow of the soul. Mr. George Douglas, president, presided as toastmaster.

Toasts: “Alpha,” by our much be­loved ex-teacher, Mrs. Whitehouse (Miss Ida Bartlett); “Honoraries,”

  1. B. Smith; “Our Academy, Her Social Side,” L. J. Farmer; “Old Professors,” W. H. Austin; “In One Bumper,” Minnie Seamans (toasted all the men); “We Women,” Nor­man Bentley; “At the World’s Fair,” Miss Frances King; “Not all the pumice of a polished town, can smooth the roughness of a country clown,” Grace Snyder (On Class of ’93); “Our Faculty, a Chestnut,” Miss Alice Walker; “Omega,” Prof. Hayden; Parting Song, composed by Miss Minnie Seamans.

The organization functioned in general in the manner first organized for over twenty years with business and banquet meetings. At the De­cember 26, 1913 annual meeting a new constitution was adopted. Then at the December 2 7, 1915 meeting the following amendment was adopted, which action was taken to conform to the more liberal school graduation action taken by the Board of Education in 1912:

“Active members shall consist of all persons who have completed a course of study in Pulaski Academy or Pulaski Union Free School, such as is approved by the Board of Edu­cation of said Academy or School and such as to entitle them to a diploma from said Board of Education.”

On June 27, 1929 three amend­ments were adopted, (1) to change the meeting date to June Commence­ment week, (2) to raise the dues to fifty cents, (3) to drop names from the mailing list after five years non-payment of dues.

There are two songs whose echoes still ring down through the years. One is the school song, “The Crimson and the Blue,” which was written in 1901 by Arthur Rider, who was with the Class of 1901, None then realized that it would become the Alma Mater song.

The second song, the Alumni part­ing song, which we now sing, was written by Mrs. Minnie Seamans Peck ’84. First mention of an Alumni parting song is made at the report of the 18 90 first annual meeting. The first stanza of that song is else­where quoted. On the alumni pro­grams for 18 91 and 18 92 is given the copy of the second parting song which was sung to the tune of Auld Lang Syne. Its first stanza is “Should our old schoolmates be for­got

And never thought of more; Should our old school mates be for­got,

And our school days of yore.”

Minnie Seamans ’84

In the Conscriptum Annum of 1894, in its delightful account of the December 29, 1893, alumni meeting, are given the words of our song of today. That too is from the pen of Minnie Seamans ’84.

The ranks of the alumni have grown rapidly in the last two decades

and it is to be expected that as years

go by the association will rise to its greater opportunity for loyalty and service.

Prizes and Awards

The citizens of Pulaski have con­tributed in many ways to the prog­ress and growth of its school and the development of its children. One of the tangible ways has been by the giving of prizes and awards for meritorious work in various aca­demic subjects, public speaking and grade work. Quoting from the 193 8- 1939 handbook, “The generosity and the fine spirit of cooperation exem­plified by the individuals and organi­zations donating prizes is a distinct tribute to high standards of scholar­ship sponsored by Pulaski Academy.”

Public speaking, the giving of Reclamations and recitations, was rather generally a part of the early Academy program. The exercises, before the fire of 1881, were usually held in Tucker’s Hall. Throughout the decades, “rhetoricals” was the name given to the dreaded program of public appearance. The hand­book for 1936-37 stated under Pub­lic Speaking that “Juniors and Sen­iors are required to appear at assem­bly at least once a year.” However the 1937-38 handbook said under Public Speaking that “Juniors and Seniors interested in public speaking prepare and give selections before a committee of teachers. From those who speak four boys and four girls are chosen to compete in the annual Moody Prize Speaking Contest.”

The present series of prize speak­ing contests was initiated by Mr. Harry A. Moody by the giving of cash prizes. In September 1913 Mr. Moody made known to the Board of Education his offer of prize money to be used as awards for public speaking. The first contest was held in the spring of 1914. This award of $50 is now given in four prizes, two girls’, first and second, and two boys’, first and second. The winners of this contest are entitled to repre­sent the school in the interscholastic prize speaking contest held later in the spring. This prize is carried on by Captain and Mrs. Hugh Barclay.

The interscholastic contest is held

between representatives of Adams, Belleville, Sandy Creek and Pulaski schools and was started in 1921. Pulaski participants have won their share of the honors of these meets.

Scholastic awards for students now are numerous and not only serve as incentives for work of merit, but their money value is of decided financial aid towards higher educa­tion. Certain scholarships awarded by the state or by institutions of higher learning will not be discussed here.

To cover the scholarship prizes of­fered in the 1900’s and their winners would make a remarkable record of scholastic achievement. The earliest one that has a history of many years was the S. R. Shear prize which is being given again now as the Shear Memorial Latin prize.

Quoting from the 193 8-39 Hand­book the following is a digest of the prizes and awards therein listed :

Moody Scholarship, $50, Academic, four awards: $15, Grades, four

awards; Moody Public Speaking, in four prizes, $5 0; Mrs. Harry A. Moody Agricultural Award, $50 in three awards; Daniel B. Meacham Scholarship, Income from Endowment fund of $2,500, $150; S. R. Shear Memorial Latin Prize, $10, by Mrs. H. R. Franklin; Dr. A. G. Dunbar

  1. M. T. C. Prize, $5; Kenneth C. Richmond Dramatics Prize, $5; D. A.
  2. Prize in American History, $5; Hubbs Prize in American History, $15; Monday Historical Club Art Award, $5; Pulaski Academy and Central School Award, $50; Benja­min F. Hutchins Memorial in Chem­istry, $15; American Legion Auxil­iary Prize in Civics, $5; Orton Music Prizes in two awards, $20; American Legion Prize, Modern History, $E>; Cross Prize in English, $5; Academy Students’ Association Prize in Ath­letics and Scholarship in two awards, $10; Pulaski Lions Club Prize in Commercial Department, $10.

Teachers Training Class

Pulaski Academy was prompt in its response to teacher training op­portunities. In 1855 the Regents of the University had planned for the free training of teachers in desig­nated academies. On October 14, 1858 the Pulaski Board of Education appointed Stephen C. Miller to pre­pare a petition to the Board of Re­gents asking the appointment of Pulaski Academy for preparing com­mon school teachers.

This petition must have been suc­cessful because a report was made to the Regents in October) 1859 part of which says that: ‘‘the trustees and principal respectfully report at least one-third of the academic year, commencing December 15, 1858 to March 22, 1859, they instructed free of charge in the science of common school teaching sixteen students of whom five were males and eleven fe­males. Each of the above before being admitted was found on special examination to have made the pre­liminary proficiency required.” The courses included academic subjects and the science of teaching. This in­struction was given by the regular Academy staff and was so continued until after the union free school dis­trict was organized in 18 92.

The training class was a well at­tended course of the Academy pro­gram and continued to be after the change to the union free school sys­tem in 1892. The law later required no less than ten nor more than twenty-five be admitted and this upper limit was often reached. Its graduates were primarily prepared for rural school teaching. The story of teacher certification is too long to be described here. After 1931 the limit of class members was set at fifteen, therefore the last two classes, 1932 and 1933, had fifteen graduates each, the full number allowed by law.

The history of the training class was closely linked with its instruc­tors. During the 1890’s and until 19 02, Miss Francis C. Richardson (Mrs. George W. Betts) was the in­structor in cooperation with the school principals. Then in 1902- 19 03 Miss L. Grace Snyder (Mrs. Arrowsmith) was appointed training class teacher. The complete list of teachers is given with the faculty list.

Mrs. Alta Ellis Rowell was teacher for the longest period of years. She has given much interesting data about the training class alumni ac­tivities from which the following is taken.

The first training class alumni banquet was held at the Pulaski House Monday evening, June 22, 1903. Principal Bean and Miss Snyder worked faithfully to make this a great success. Those taking part on the program were: Mr.Charles M. Bean, Mrs. G. W. Betts, Miss L. Grace Snyder, Mabel A. Har- die, L. Grace Henderson, Bessie A. Sammons, Anna M. Lacy, Herman W. Kandt, D. C. Mahaffy and Leslie N. Broughton. Officers elected were: president, J. B. Loomis; other officers were Dora E. Naylor, Bessie Sammons, Edith W. Nye, D. May Joslyn.

Other meetings followed from time to time. In June 1926 a meeting of training class alumni of the classes of 1924, 25 and 26 was held at Pine Grove. It was decided to form an alumni association and meet an­nually. Officers were: President, Ida Sill; first vice president, Ruth Clark; second vice president, Jessie Bice; corresponding secretary, Mae Burch; recording secretary, Marie Weston; treasurer, Eva Donovan. Another meeting was held the following autumn for a professional program. The annual June picnic has been continued each year with the four­teenth meeting to be held in June 1939.

The list of training class graduates is given, after the list of high school alumni. No teachers were graduated after 1933. After that year the state department’s long established pro­gram of one year preparation by teachers’ training classes for rural school teachers was abandoned.

School Societies

Literary societies flourished from early academy days. The Kalophil- ian for young men was mentioned in 1869. In 1870-71 there was the Adelphi Society for young men. The 90’s had three; the earliest was the Theta Nu Epsilon, for boys and girls; 18 92-9 3 the Philomathean. In 1894 the third was a girls’ society, the Theta Pi Alpha, which was still ac­tive in 1898 as the “Ladies’ Literary Society”.

The Eulegonian and Philogian de­bating societies were important in the early 1900’s, both organized dur­ing the principalship of C. M. Bean. The Eulegonian was formed in Feb­ruary 1901, the Philogian in 1906, and both were still active in 1914 with Stanley Brown and Sylvia Pratt as respective presidents. The Phil­ogian is not now active, although the names of Rhoda Howard and Beulah Clyde appear in 1920-21 as presi­dents.

The Beta Alpha succeeded the Eule­gonian and was organized in 1915 with Clarence Gorman, president. In 1917 both societies suspended activ­ity temporarily. The Beta Alpha was reorganized and continued until a few years ago.

Student Participation in a Democracy

It is safe to say that during 1938- 1939 no subject in the United States has been discussed more widely than Democracy. It has been written about in newspapers, magazines and books. It has been broadcast over the air in addresses, and plays and debates and music. It has been emphasized by motion picture producers in news reels and full length pictures. It has been given new meaning by plays of merit on the legitimate stage. The Church, through its pul­pit and its religious and education programs, has examined Democracy to give it new values and to find new applications.

What are educators doing about Democracy, our heritage? That ques­tion has two phases which can be discussed only briefly here. The first is, How can Democracy be preserved? It is our way of life based on the worth of the individual, which in turn has its roots in the principles of Christianity. Let us assume then that this American way of living is worth preserving, and is what we in the United States want to preserve for our future generations.

If it is to be preserved, this right of every individual to life, liberty and pursuit of happiness, then that right can no longer be taken for granted. Fortunate is it that insti­tutions of higher learning and pub­lic schools, administrators and teach­ers, have come to the realization that to keep Democracy it must be made to work more efficiently. To do that it must be discussed, compared with other kinds of government and ways of living, evaluated, appreciated and practiced.

The second phase of the question is that the schools have the oppor­tunity and the responsibility of help- ig make democracy work. Courses of study approached with a different point of view, enriched and changed curriculums, and school community activities furnish practice in demo­cratic living. Discussion, comparison and evaluation mean little without practice and application.

Pulaski Union School and Acad­emy offered in the past some oppor­tunity for that democratic kind of education. But some graduates can look back to their school days when the word of the teachers was law and the opportunity for cooperative participation was little. Of course a real democracy does not imply li­cense nor lack of respect nor lack of discipline. But true democracy does imply cooperation, and that is what new educational methods and trends emphasize, recognition of the abilities and rights of the individual in a community where the good of the whole must be considered. Parti­cipation in communal activities with its acceptance of responsibility, exer­cise of self restraint, recognition of legitimate authority without subser­vience, and with opportunities to de­velop honesty and dependability and an alert mind to understand the problems of the world today—these are purposes of a democratic educa­tional procedure.

Quoting from the 38-39 Handbook “Guidance as interpreted by Pulaski Academy and Central School unfolds itself as a program of student par­ticipation under teacher direction by which students learn how to live more harmoniously with others and also learn more about many of the desirable things, in life …. In addi­tion considerable time and effort will be devoted (in 19 38-1939) to mak­ing the student vocationally cons­cious and to> have him learn what education, training and personal qualifications are necessary for him to prepare for the job of his choice.”

In this United States, a republic of many sovereign states, we are enjoy­ing the fruits of centuries of strug­gle for the rights of the common man against tyranny, oppression and educational and economic in­equalities. To appreciate and pre­serve these rights its citizenry must be a responsible body of intelligent voters. The academic courses of study are giving more time to the consideration of history. We must survey the centuries, note the prog­ress, realize and try to appreciate what the heritage, that we have been taking for granted, has cost. Then by practicing the principles of demo­cracy, it will be possible to develop, to some extent, a sense of respon- sibilty for preserving and handing it on. Our American way has not provided an equal distribution of this world’s goods, nor has it be­come as perfect a way of living as future decades can make it. But to us in 193 9 it seems to provide for a greater number of its people more and better things than any other way yet developed has done for its people.

The Pulaski school through its regular curriculums, its student governing organizations, its school publications, its music groups, its dramatics, its athletics and many other extra-curricular activities fur­nishes occasions without number for practice in living our democratic principles, faculty and students to­gether.

Tribute to Teachers

Schools are what teachers make them and memories of school days, whether past or present, are closely interwoven with memories of teach­ers of those days.

No greater reward can come to a teacher than comes in definite words, that the influence of the teacher has been greater on a life than any other influence outside the family. This power to influence others has placed a responsibility and a chal­lenge before teachers of yesterday and of today.

Every alumnus and every student when readinjg this statement will bring to mind some respected and beloved teachers who have changed and enriched the course of his life.

Boards of Education can supply buildings and equipment. But it is the warmth of personalities, the keen human interest in students and their problems, and the high stand­ards of scholarship and every day living, that teachers strive to attain for themselves, and to set as goals for others, that make a livng institu­tion out of bricks and mortar.

THE CRIMSON AND BLUE

There are those who long have favored

The violet’s blue shade,

And others who will ever

To the crimson rose be staid;

We will place them both together,

And never shall we rue

Those years we’ve stood defenders

Of the Crimson and Blue.

We have studied ‘neath thy ensign,

We have worked beneath thy flag,

And our hearts will e’r be with thee,

Though the years may fleet or lag,

We will ever be thy guardian

Ever keep thy memory true,

And we’ll ever fly the banner

With the Crimson and the Blue.

All the pleasures that we cherish,

Soon will pass fore’er away

And the memories of our school days

Sink beneath the shadows gray,

Yet there’s one thing we’ll remember

All the years we yet pass through, ‘

Tis the thought of old Pulaski

And the Crimson and the Blue.

Arthur Fremont Rider ’01

 

 

Reminiscences

Old Academy Days Muse awhile, and look back over the years, into life in the old Pu­laski Academy. Recall with us the experiences of your youth. If you are still young, take a peep into the youthful days of your parents or grandparents. We have chatted with people here and there, pupils and teachers, about “now” and “then,” and from them we have gleaned per­sonal impressions which we are pre­senting for your perusal. To these, we have added a few printed items reminiscent of people or events in connection with Pulaski’s schools to make as complete a picture as pos­sible.

In a scrapbook of our grand­mother’s time we found a number of items which reveal conditions and people of Pulaski’s early schools. One article written in 1884 told of con­ditions fifty years before, which would be 1834. We can guess at the extent of education from one sen­tence: “Frame houses were rather scarce and the means of education quite limited.”

From an Academy paper, written about 1861, and quoted in the August 1890 number of “The Aeademian” we read:

Echoes

What voice is sweet as heavenly manna?

That of Anna.

Who always pays his debts?

Albert Betts.

Who is like a sunbeam in the dark? Ella Clark.

Who comes into the chapel latest? Henry Davis.

Who wants all that she can get? Bentley Ett.

Who comes to the chapel early ? Charley Gurley.

Who’ll fight the longest for a kiss? Surely—Hollis.

Who starts whenever she hears a

ring?

Ella King.

Who does his best for all the party? H. McCarty.

Who might, could, would or should?

Manly Osgood.

Who is ever blithe and merry? Salisbury.

Who so easily gets mift?

Ella Tifft.

Who is loving, kind and true? Who like you.

Another article from an old scrapbook was the obituary of

Stephen C. Miller, the first principal of Pulaski Academy, written at the time of his death in 1869. We were interested to know what he was like. Perhaps you will be, too, and we quote one paragraph of it. “He was born in 1823 in Albany County. He prepared for college in Albany Acad­emy and entered the junior class of Union College in the fall of 1843. In spite of his short course he was vale­dictorian and his valedictory poem was considered a brilliant production of wit and humor and rhythm. He was a member of the Phi Beta Kappa society because of his superiority in scholarship. Withal he wTas a general favorite, the radiant center of wit, the intellectual light and soul of the scene.” Mr. Miller was undoubt­edly secured by Attorney Don A. King, who attended Union College at the time Mr. Miller was there. Mr. King was one of the leading pro­moters of the new academy.

Mrs. Alta Maltby Austin, whom we remember well, was a pupil in Pu­laski Academy in the sixties. Her daughter, Mrs. F. Earle McChesney (Ruth Austin) says that her mother held the Academy in high esteem. “In the days when an academic pupil went to school or not as he liked, she took all the subjects that she could. She had as much mathe­matics as most students take in col­lege including trigonometry and cal­culus. She and her future husband, William H. Austin, both taught some subjects while they were attending school. There was no ceremony of graduation, but when they had com­pleted the work, they stopped. Later, when the Alumni Association was formed, they were included among the graduates, for they and a few others best represented the school in 1868.” They kept up their interest in school affairs, both serving on the Board of Education, Mr. Austin from 1889 to 1901 and Mrs. Austin from 1903 to 1906. Mrs. Austin contin­ued to impress an appreciation of the Academy on succeeding gradu­ates by her regular attendance at the annual banquets of the Alumni Association as long as she lived (1930).

Mr. David C. Mahaffy, born in August 1847, still at the age of 91

remembered his early school days in the schoolhouse on Maple avenue, on the south side of the street where the road turns toward Richland. There were about forty pupils—quite a large school. His first teacher was

  1. A. Forbes, who later became a school commissioner. Miss Emma Snow (Mrs. J. W. Fenton and later Mrs. S. C. Huntington, Sr.) was an­other one of his teachers in that school. She started teaching when she was sixteen years old. She was a sister of Benjamin Snow who was later on the Board of Education (1872-1886). The school was closed in 1855, and the pupils went to the brick school which was located where the Congregational Church now stands.

After the Academy was dedicated all the children went to that build­ing for a time. There were no grades designated as such. The teachers sep­arated them into classes A., B., C.> and primer classes. The primary de­partment (probably children up to about ten years of age) was up­stairs and Emma Snow was the teacher. She had been transferred after the Maple avenue school was closed.

Schools were much different at that time. The students rang the bell, carried in wood, swept and did other work to pay their tuition. The rooms were heated by stoves in which wood was burned. Mr. Mahaffy said that the stoves used in the Academy were made at the Pulaski Iron Works.

Mr. Mahaffy remembered Henry L. Lamb, principal 18 5 7-’5 9 and Daniel

  1. Owen, who was an assistant teach­er in the Academy (18 62-’64). Mr.

Owen enlisted in the War of the Re­bellion (Sept. 1, 18 64). After the war wTas over, he came back to Pulaski and was principal of Pulaski Academy (in 1866). Later he was a Baptist minister in the village and still later in Cleveland, New York. Mr. Mahaffy once saw him there when he went to Cleveland to sell wool.

(These items were obtained from Mr. Mahaffy before his death in May, 193 9, by his granddaughter, Esther Morenus.)

Mr. Walter C. Wood of Stamford, Conn., a former editor, writes about an interesting fact in connection with the Academy’s history. “The origi­nal flagstaff at the peak of the cupola was put up during the Civil War, when a company of young men from Pulaski and vicinity enlisted and formed Company I., 3 7th Regi­ment on President Lincoln’s first call for volunteers. My brother, G. E. Wood, was among them and E. W. Peckham was captain. They drilled and marched on the green in front of the Court House. It was during this time that the flagstaff was put up. It couldn’t seem possible the original pole lasted all these years, yet I know it was there when I left home in 18 78. John Richards and I had great times when we attended the Academy together (about 18 68). In the winter we frequently crossed the river on the ice to the rear of father’s garden. (He lived in the house where Norman Woods lives now.) (We find no record that the fiag-pole was changed. It was taken down when the tall fiag-pole was erected (about 19 26) on the lawn in front of the building.)

Mr. Simeon R. Trumbull, a nona­genarian of the village, says that he and other students went to the Academy for the fall term to pre­pare to teach for the winter term, about 18 63 or ’6 4. “Everything was taught from the alphabet to algebra and English. The school was an embryo normal. The school commis­sioner for the district, Mr. George F. Woodbury, would set a date for an examination, for the would-be teachers and make out a set of ques­tions. The students wrote out the answers. The roll-call of students included the following names: Alice Woods, Martha Woods, Miss Wat­son, Miss Weed, Ben J. Cole from Sandy Creek, later the school com­missioner, Billy Beadle, Ern Beech­er, and William Baldwin.

Pulaski Academy was the place of abode for those who wished lodging as well as the hall of learning. Twelve or fourteen boys slept in the building on the third floor. I made my own bedstead by nailing to the wall strips of wood procured from the woodhouse and storehouse back of the Academy. It went down one night and I lay with my feet up and my head down. Since I couldn’t do anything about it until morning, I stayed there. Stoves were furnished. We did not use kerosene lamps in those days. Candles were used for light. No one boarded in the Academy in ’64. They went outside for meals. The principal, Mr. Butterworth, lived in the Academy to take care of the boys. When he first came, he wasn’t married and had just one room in the southwest corner. Later he mar­ried the preceptress, Miss Helen Rice, and they both taught for a few months until the death of Mr. But­terworth.”

Mrs. Butterworth continued to teach for the rest of the year and roomed at the Academy with another woman teacher in the southwest cor­ner room on the second floor, ac­cording to Mrs. C. E. Keyes (Viola Beadle). “Prin. and Mrs. Owen lived on the second floor at the right at the head of the stairs. There was a man assistant teacher on the third floor. No girls roomed on the second floor at that time (1866). Three other girls and I lived in a big room in the southeast corner of the first floor. I remember a kerosene lamp with a black standard on the table. (When I was a little girl, my mother had a fluid lamp in which were three candle wicks, but before I went to high school, we used kerosene lamps at home.) There was a cookstove in the room. Sometimes we popped corn. All in the building could smell it, so the boys on the third floor let down a basket and were rewarded by receiving a generous amount as well as the teachers on the second floor. The room on the first floor, later used as a dining room, was a school room in 1866, and the front next the hall was a class room. When I finished my school days, Mr. Forbes, the school commissioner, gave me a certificate to teach from my Regents work without other examination.”

From a relative of Mr. Forbes we obtained several items of school his­tory. In response to an inquiry to Dr. Mary Lechtrecker of Rockville Centre, N. Y., for data about her mother’s teaching in Pulaski we re­ceived a reply giving facts which she and her aunt, Mrs. Clara Forbes Soule remember as follows: “My

mother, Mary L. Forbes (Robinson) taught in a school just off Lake street on Church street. (An item about this is given under “Church Street School.”) Uncle Orville Forbes, grandfather’s (Gardener A. Forbes) brother, who was also a brother of Standish and Daniel Meacham’s mother, at one time taught in the old Pulaski Academy, and then afterwards was school commissioner. Later he lived, and died, in Toledo, Ohio.” (The name of another sister of Mary and Clara Forbes appears on the program of the Academy Exhibi­tion March 19, 1869, Sarah Forbes.)

At this point we insert recollec­tions of a member of the class of ’71, Jesse B. Low, as written in “The Academy Quarterly” of December 1890. “While perusing the contents of an old portfolio, my eyes rested suddenly upon a quaint looking, musty old document, that would have passed unnoticed, but for the neat little bow of blue ribbon it bears, and looking again, I discover it to be my “Regents Certificate of Academic Scholarship,” No. 19073 dated Pulaski, N. Y., March 21, 1871.

Many of the landmarks surround­ing the Academy have fallen easy victims to the hand of progress, while so far as the writer is aware, the

Academy proper, stands as yet unal­tered by the elements as well as by architects. The southeast room on the ground floor was used as a pri­mary department under the very efficient tutorage of her who was, and may be still, Miss Duncan. The southeast room, but hold, I have omitted the large and commodious cellar, which figured quite conspicu­ously as a place of confinement, for some of the unmannerly youths of the class, and whether I belonged to the “Mollie Maguire’s” at that time, my memory fails to serve me. However, to be candid, I seem, to possess, even yet, an accurate recol­lection of the pillars and pilasters that support the Pulaski Academy. The southwest room was dubbed as the “mess hall” for boarding stu­dents, while the entire north of the building on this floor was used as a chapel, and here I have listened to the bloodcurdling oratory of the Class of ’71. “Cannons to right of us, cannons to left of us, volleyed and thundered” in this old chapel many times during these years. . . . The second floor, used chiefly for class recitations embraced the quarters of the principal, upon whose door knob, after “taps,” could be found most anything from a sprinkling pot to a young heifer, (dead to be sure). The third floor, while ostensibly the sleeping quarters of the Academy, was in reality the quarters where sleep was unknown. It was upon this floor the “Molly Maguires” held forth, and in their midnight revel- lings concocted such schemes as turning the old bell in the cupola bot­tom side up and freezing the clapper stiff in the ice. How vividly all this comes back. In the yard I see the “merry-go-round,” the swings, the great massive chestnut trees, and see off in the distance the sparkling waters of old Salmon River, while the clang of the blacksmith anvil and buzz of the sawmill are as vivid as then; not even the distractions of a toiling existence for twenty years, have served to obliterate these indel­ible recollections of the happy days of ’71. … I must close by saying that if I could but see once more the happy faces of my schoolmates; hear the old bell in the cupola sound the hour for a meeting, and grasp the hands of my teachers as in the days of my childhood, how quickly would I seek shelter from the tempestuous realities of life ’neath the roof of the dear old Academy.”

William W. Jones tells of the boarding school days in the seven­ties. “There were perhaps twenty- five boys on the third floor. They brought much of their food from home, so the first of the week they would eat a great deal—pies, cakes, etc., but the last of the week they looked as if they needed to go to a gas station and be blown up. When they were up to mischief, they some­times put old stove-pipe on the stairs, so it would make a noise and notify them of the approach of the ‘professor’.”

Mrs. W. W. Jones (Mrs. Helen Woods DeMott) remembered the building in her time. First on enter­ing was the chapel on the north side of the first floor where chapel exer­cises were held every day and rhetor- icals every Friday for which pieces were learned and essays written. “On the right there was a big room in front for girls, which had to be reached through the dining room. At one time the boarding house was kept by Mrs. Holmes; afterwards by Mrs. Hydorn and her mother, Mrs. Austin. The office was on the second floor on the south. The preceptress in 18 81, Miss Lewis, had the room in the southwest corner. Somewhat earlier, Nancy Wooster had this posi­tion. She was a very bright woman. She was later the mother of Helen and George Peckham.

My sister, Mrs. Alice Woods Ells­worth, went to school when Mr. Butterworth was principal. At that time there were hardly a hundred pupils. There were three terms and tuition was about forty dollars a year.

The original academy building was built by David Bennett, grandfather of Norman Woods and uncle of Merton Bennett. His name was on one of the corner stones. There were two corner stones.”

Did you know that there was once a wedding in the Academy? Mrs. Grove Harmon secured for us the information that on January 4, 1875, Ida Maria Holmes was married to George Ogden Harmon in Pulaski Academy. The marriage took place in the private living room of her mother, Mrs. Emily Holmes, who had charge of the boarding accommoda­tions of the school at that time.

We are told that Sebastian Duffy, principal 1869-1879, “was a bright man, but he had a hot temper which sometimes brought him into diffi­culties. Mrs. Duffy would get furious at him. Sometimes he supervised one study room, sometimes both when the double doors were open. He was short and stout and he had a big voice. He would walk up and down, up and down, blowing his ‘whale voice’—-keeping order. Mrs. Duffy was all business, and since she was preceptress, and since Mr. and Mrs. Duffy lived in the building, she was on the spot to help manage affairs. She ran the Academy.”

  1. G. Whitney evidently thinks that in his time a woman wasn’t equal to the teaching task for he says that it was a man-sized job to look after Pulaski Academy in those days. In addition to teaching, how­ever, there was the all-time responsi­bility of looking after a large group of boys and “they were bright fel­lows.” He admits they didn’t all like to study, and that sometimes they urged him to help them translate their Greek. One night he and War­ren Warner and another boy were in Tom Hayden’s room supposedly studying Greek. The boys, however, got to boding with gloves on. The principal, Mr. Wheeler, arrived for a call. Mr. Whitney sat there study­ing Greek, but the other boys had disappeared into a closet. Mr. Wheeler visited for about fifteen min­utes, then went to the closet door and opened it. There were the other boys, crowded together, the perspira­tion pouring off their faces. Mr.

Wheeler said, “Good evening, gentle­men. This is a hot night to stay there.”

The boarding pupils often pitched quoits back of the sehoolhouse for diversion, or played croquet on the court house lawn. They also played ball, but there were no school teams.

Mr. Whitney says Mr. Wheeler was a good teacher. “He could teach mathematics. He went right to the point and made it plain.”

Various experiences came to those who lived in the Academy. Mr. D. S. Scriber attended the Academy in 1882 and lived on the third floor. He remembers eight boys and recalls Lyman Smith, George Blount, John Adams (known as John Quincy), Fred McNitt, and Wesley Cole. One of the boys, George Blount, came down with the mumps and none of the others would go near him, but Mr. Scriber said he didn’t mind hav­ing them, so he took care of the boy and when his parents came for him, tied up his head in a scarf for protection. Mr. Scriber didn’t have the mumps either. The boys seemed to have a very good time at the Academy and enjoyed the beautiful chestnut grove that was back of the building, especially when they played practical jokes on each other with the burs. At one time the boys helped in a fire on Salina street, where Mr, Benedict’s gas station is now, by helping to draw the hose cart. It made quite an impression on the boys, as it was their first big fire. Mr. Scriber still has the grammar and rhetoric books which he studied at school in 1882.

Mrs. Grant Farrington (Carrie Balsley) remembers well her school days in the Academy when Prill. E. M. Wheeler, Miss Lewis, Miss Nich­ols, Miss Bartlett and Mrs. Gertrude Townsend Skeel were the teachers. The building is vivid in her memory —the principal’s office at the top of the stairs at the right on the second floor and two teachers’ rooms (living quarters) west of the office. North of these and also facing the front were two large study rooms with double doors between, (just as they were until 190 6 when the first annex was built). The room in the corner was the girls’ study room and the one south of it was the boys’ study room. Classes were held in the front of both rooms and boys and girls went to either room for classes.

In 18 81 Mrs. William Wilder (Mina Erskine) was attending the Academy and rooming in the build­ing in one of the three front rooms in the southwest side of the building, in front of, and opening into the long, narrow room that was the din­ing room. “The year 1881 is a sig­nificant date to many of the older Pulaski residents, for it was the year of the big fire which wiped out entire business section from Park street and Maple avenue to Bridge street on both sides of Jefferson street. At four o’clock in the morning all the students and teachers in the Academy hastened out to see the fire and to help in what ways they could. They helped to carry merchandise from the stores and some even helped relieve other citizens at the hand pump. This was the only fire appa­ratus which Pulaski had. There were several handles along each side of the pump and these were manned by different individuals who pumped valiantly, though ineffectively, to try to check the blaze. In spite of the desolate-looking village, the school carried on as usual.”

Mrs. Wilder has various recollec­tions of the third floor of the Acade­my building. She remembers “the art studio on the third floor where Miss Metelill Huntington taught drawing.” She also thinks of the third floor as “the region where pranks were played,” hence the ad­venture of invading the third floor, even for a class. It is a pleasure to her to remember the “sings” which the boys had outside of school hours. “When the windows were open songs could be heard for some distance. Some of the boys had very good voices. Peter Hutt and Wesley Cole, a fine tenor, were two of them.

“Mr. Wheeler was a bright man. He sometimes preached as a supply,

not a regular minister. He could talk on almost any subject.”

Mrs. Wilder’s mother went to the Academy in the first few years of its existence but roomed outside.

“The old days weren’t so bad, were they?” said Miss Carrie Lane as she showed us with pride the programs of her school days. The quality of work indicated by the titles aroused our admiration and the Regents papers would set our brains to work. There was a geography Re­gents examination dated Nov. 6, 18 74; an arithmetic examination of 1878; Caesar examinations of Nov. 1880 and 1883, French of 1881, Anabasis of 1883 and Iliad of 18 84. How would you like to hear this entertainment, the program of which follows?

Grand Entertainment
by the
Latin Classes
of

Pulaski Academy
at the

Court House, May 26 (1882)
Programme

Quartette, “Lauriger Horatius” Recitation (in Latin)

Declamation, “The Parting of Hector and Andromache”

Newton Thompson Essay, “Roman Literature”

Carrie Lane

Quartette, “Sapiens et Rubetum” Declamation, “The Roman Senate and American Congress”

Fred Daly

Recitation, “Dies Irae”

Libbie Lloyd

Declamation, “Dies Irae” translated

  1. C. Morris

Colloquy, “The Study of Latin”

Class of 188 5

Essay, “Roman Wars”

  1. A. Richardson Declamation, “The Speech of Regu- lus” Wesley Cole

Declamation, “Horatius at the Bridge” Frank A. Box

Duet

Colloquy (in Roman costume)

Misses Wheeler and King Essay, “A Roman Family”

Minnie Morris

Cicero (in costume) “Oration Against Cataline” T. E. Hayden Oration (with valedictory) ‘Tama”

  1. E. Jones

Quartette, “Nos Beata”

Admission 15 cents Children 10 cents Here is the copy of a handbill of interest.

PULASKI ACADEMY
2 7th Annual Exhibition
PULASKI OPERA HOUSE
Friday evening, June 18th, 1880
These exercises will consist of
Declamations, Recitations and
Essays, interspersed with Music,
vocal and instrumental.
Admission—15 cents
After the literary exercises
there will be a
RE-UNION

to which all Former Students
of the Academy are cordially
invited, together with their
friends.

Fall Term of Pulaski Academy Commences Aug. 22 There was the commencement program of the Class of ’81, part of which follows:

Twenty-Seventh Anniversary
Graduating Class
Pulaski Academy
Pulaski Opera House, June 16, ’81
Programme

Overture Orchestra

Prayer Rev. James Douglas

Violin Solo

(Seven essays followed by mem­bers of the class.)

Awarding of Diplomas

(Seven Names) Commercial Course (Three Names) Music Orchestra

Ushers will collect the bouquets and carry them to the stage. Another program sheet is as fol­lows:

Twenty-Ninth
Annual Commencement

of

PULASKI ACADEMY Thursday Eve., June 14 (1883) at the M. E. Church Programme

Essay with Salutatory, “Beginnings” May L. Wheeler

Oration, “Wrongs to the Indians”

Monroe Warner Oration, “The Veil of the Temple is

Rent in Twain,” C. E. Jones

Oration, “Principle in War”

John Mattison Oration, “Where do the Echoes Go?” W. W. Cole

Oration with Valedictory, “Elevation is Exposure” N. W. Thompson (These were interspersed with music).

Two other items told by Miss Lane will be of interest. There was no library except a few books on a shelf. Second, there was a training class for which no tuition was charged.

To Miss Ida Hadley we are in­debted for a fund of information about the schools of the village. “In the early years of the settlement of the village there was no school building. Children would meet in a mill or some home for instruction, possibly in the old red mill which stood on the east side of Salina street where Merriam’s gas station is now. This might have been Mathewson’s grist mill. In my memory Mr. Dunn, Gertrude Dunn Burch’s father, had the grist mill. Just before the acad­emy building was erected, the school met in the Sunday School room of the Baptist Church which was lo­cated where the church is now. The building set up rather high and the basement was their Sunday School room.

In the academy building in the early eighties the chapel was of first

interest as you entered. It was on the left of the hall. Round chunk stoves, placed in the corners, were used in the chapel or assembly room, as well as in other rooms of the building, though a decade before square box stoves were used for heat. One of this latter type used to be near the center, or a little for­ward, of the assembly room. These were low so the teachers could see over them. The seats of the assem­bly room were all long benches, with backs, which held five or six people. There were no desks and the room was not used for study, but some­times it was used for recitations. Every Friday there were rhetoricals with essays, recitations, and music, vocal and instrumental. The essays were not assigned and taught in Eng­lish classes, but were written out­side of school. Declamations were often given. One day a youth forgot his piece. He said, ‘Friends, Romans, countrymen … I come not here to talk,’ and he took his seat. Every day there was chapel with Bible reading and prayer (not the Lord’s Prayer — possibly one from the Episcopal prayer book) and a hymn. There were no flag salutes or patri­otic songs or school songs.

Other room arrangements and uses are as follows. At the right on the first floor were three little sleeping rooms in front for girl stu­dents. Next back was the dining room, dark and dingy, with only one window. Back of that was the kitchen (next the hall) and two liv­ing rooms for whoever kept the dining room. Mrs. Wheeler, the principal’s wife, kept the dining room when she was there. Before that, someone outside the school kept it. The Wheelers had six chil­dren; the two smallest stayed with the parents; two boys lived on the third floor, and the girls with the other girls. As you turned to the left at the top of the stairs on the second floor, you reached the philo­sophical room in which was the air pump which sometimes worked and sometimes didn’t, and the electrical machine. Other classes were held there — the chemistry class, which had an alcohol lamp, and the geol­ogy class, which had a few stones. It was a general science room. Far­ther to the left was the girls’ study room. As you turned tOi the right as the stairs divided approaching the second floor, you reached the princi­pal’s room at the head of the stairs. Farther to the right was the boys’ study room. Beyond this, to the south, was a room sometimes used for a class room and sometimes for drawing and painting. Next to it was the corner room which was a teach­er’s room or rather two rooms, a sitting room and a sleeping room, occupied by two teachers. It was heated by a box stove. On the third floor were the boys’ rooms. The boys were supposed to stay in their rooms during study hours but the principal or supervising teacher had to make frequent tours of inspection to see that this was done.

The curriculum was somewhat dif­ferent from that of to-day. It was predominantly classical. I had no history. The course included natural philosophy, moral philosophy, and mental philosophy. My sister, Ella Hadley, who was graduated in 1871, took all three. There was a separate text-book for each. The one for men­tal philosophy (psychology) was a very thick book. Moral philosophy was ethics. Natural philosophy be­came physics later. Experiments were very simple and were per­formed before the class. Science was talked about but was not very scien­tific. Dr. Betts sometimes went to the Academy and lectured on hy­giene. Piano was taught by someone from outside who came in and charged for the lessons. Mrs. Green (Jessie Maltby) and Mrs. MacDonald were two of the music teachers. The pupils would go to their houses for lessons. Some of the pupils who lived in the Academy could practice there by paying for the privilege. Drawing was somewhat separate too.

Regents examinations began about 18 68 while Ella Hadley was in school. At first there were Regents examinations only in common Eng­lish which included arithmetic, geog­raphy, grammar and spelling. In the eighties there were Regents examinations in other subjects. The examinations were sent from Albany. The students’ answer papers were reviewed by teachers and the pass­ing ones sent to Albany. The Regents committee, appointed by the Board of Education, sat in the examination room to see that the examinations were conducted fairly. Since the teachers received compensation ac­cording to the number of papers passed, it was feared they might be tempted by some dishonest practices unless some ministers and other prominent citizens were present.

The ceremony of graduation de­veloped after the Academy had been functioning for a number of years. The names of the first graduating class are for 18 68. I was told that the class of 1871 was the first class which had graduation exercises. In that year they had graduation exer­cises with diplomas. These school graduating exercises were held on the third floor of Tucker’s Hall on the west side of Jefferson street near where the Jewell block now is. This was destroyed by; the fire of ’81 and then the exercises were held in the churches until the Betts Opera House was build. In 1882 and 18 83 they were held in the Methodist church; in ’8 4 in the Opera House.

The teachers were paid by the principals—Duffy, Wheeler, Moore, etc.—not by the Board of Education, until Mr. Shear went there and the system was changed. After that time the Board attended to paying the teachers. I remember Mr. Wheeler, the principal, Miss Ida Gilbert, the preceptress, followed by Miss Mary Lewis, Miss Elizabeth Nichols (Mrs. George Bentley later) and Miss Ida Bartlett (Whitehouse); also Miss Seager, Miss Burns and Mrs. Ger­trude Townsend Skeel who taught science. Mr. Haggerty taught alge­bra and geometry. Miss Emma Foote was an assistant and Miss Mary Port taught Latin for a short tipie.

The nupils came to the Academy when they wanted to, that is, they could stop, if they wished. The school got down to about thirty pupils lust before Mr. Duffy left. In 1879 there weren’t enough to put on an entertainment at commencemw h If pupils got tired of the prin or were ‘miffed’ at anything. *ey didn’t go.”

Several programs of literary en­tertainments in the possession of Miss Hadley are of interest. One lit­erary entertainment by the Adelphi Society in the Academy chapel Jan. 24 (the late sixties) consisted of three parts—(1) a program of music, orations, essays, declama­tions, and recitations (D. C. Mahaffy, W. H. Austin, and Miss Ella Hadley were among the participants) (2) a debate: ‘Resolved, That the threat­ened Fenian Insurrection is just and should be supported.’ (Given by fout- boys). (3) Comic declamation. Col­loquy, Courtship under Difficulties. Colloquy, National Representatives —news boy, Irish boy, English boy, Dutch boy, officer. Tickets, 10 cents.

Another entertainment by the same society Feb. 28 (the late six­ties) had a similar program. The de­bate was on this topic: ‘‘Resolved,

that the rights of equal suffrage should be extended to women.” The decision was given by Commissioner O. A. Forbes.

Another program is the following: Pulaski Academy Exhibition at Tucker’s Hall, Friday Evening March 19, 1869 Programme:

Prayer

Music

Salutatory Frank Low

Music

Declamation “American Patriotism” L. D. Hulbert

Essay “Bei der Sache ist ein Aber”

Stella Calkins

Recitation “The Game of Life”

Anna W. Miller

Music

A Farce “Grief Too Expensive” Declamation, “The Honored Dead”

Charles D. Wilder

Essay, “A Maiden’s Meditations”

Marion Peckham Recitation, “Song of the Book”

Frankie Reed

Music

Declamation, “Our Heroes, Living and Dead” Charles B. King

Essay, “The Good Old Days”

Etta Frary

Recitation, “A Surprise”

Nora Twitchell

Music

Declamation, “The Heritage of Cul­ture” Charles Wood

Essay, “Power of Habit” Rose Chase Recitation, “Nature and Philosophy” Ella Hadley

Music

Valedictory Sarah Forbes

Benediction

Admission 20 cents, Doors Open at 7
Exercises at 7:30

The first recollection which Mrs. Godsmark (Lottie Cross) has about the Academy was at a time when, as a very small child in the earp/ seven­ties, she was taken there as a visitor. She saw a little snake curled up under the turnstile in the picket fence in front of the building. So startling was the situation to her that she always remembered the turnstile. (Miss Ida Hadley also re­members the turnstile). Later recol­lections include the following: “There were no grades in the Acad­emy, only high school and the teach­er training school taught by the principal. During my high-school days, about 18 85, there were four teachers, Prin. Moore, Miss Halleck, Miss Gilbert and Miss Foote. A man was added later for physics, chem­istry etc. In 18 84 boys occupied the third floor, six or eight of them, two to four in a room. Some of them boarded themselves and some board­ed with the principal, Mr. Wheeler, on the first floor. The boys paid extra for board that was served by the principal’s wife. About half a dozen girls lived on the second floor and some boarded with the princi­pal. Prin. Wheeler and his wife and six children all lived in the build­ing. The classrooms were on the second floor. Two large ones super­vised, one by the principal and one by the preceptress, were study halls, but classes were also held there all the time. There were also two other classrooms. Afterwards there was a large study room on the ground floor. Pupils who lived in the Acade­my were supposed to. be ‘in’ unless they had permission to stay ‘out.’ Doors were locked at ten o’clock. The fire-escape rope, which was fastened to a ring in the floor of the third story, was, however, a con­stant temptation to the boys who re­sided there. It was often used to let down a basket to get ‘eats’ for a spread. The girls sometimes had ex­periences, too. At one time Miss Gil­bert and a pupil, Myrtis Steele, were sitting on the steps in the evening. Bats, which lived in the belfry, were flying around them and one caught in their hair.”

When Mrs. Mabel Halleran went to school, there were no grades in the academy building. Her reminis­cences are about her high-school associations, activities of school life, and the building itself. Mr. Moore was principal at the time. “Miss Hal­leck was the preceptress. She had a piece of brown cambric stretched under the bannisters so the boys couldn’t see our ankles below our long dresses when we were coming down stairs,” she recalls with a twinkle in her eye. “Miss Gilbert taught mathematics, and there was Mr. Watson, who. roomed on the third floor and was always looking around for trouble, and Mr. Henry Brown, who lived in town,” she adds. “Meals were served by Mrs. Case. The faculty, two girls and the boys boarded with her at one time. I lived with another girl in the room in the southwest corner of the sec­ond floor which was used as the drawing room in later years. I fur­nished my own room except the stove, even the carpet. The stove was a sheet-iron chunk stove in which the janitor built the fire in the morning. Kerosene lamps were used, some of which were hanging lamps. Every pupil had to study eve­nings but could get permission to be ‘out’ if there was something special.

In the chapel or assembly hall on the first floor was a wide stage, two steps high, on the east side of the room. The entire faculty sat on the platform every morning. The exercises consisted of Bible reading, the Lord’s Prayer, hymns and some­times other songs. The pupils marched to classes after chapel exer­cises by piano marches played by Beulah Muzzey (Adams), one of the Maltby girls, Floy Betts (Baker) and others. Once every week there were rhetoricals when there were read­ings, plays and special music. Every­one had to take part during the year. I remember taking the part of Priscilla on one occasion; Herbert Calkins was John Alden and Nor­man Bentley, Miles Standish. Mrs. Harry Moody, who was in the Academy at the time, told me once that she remembered this playlet.

Outstanding among the social events were the school receptions, at least two during the year. They were formal affairs and formal dress was worn. I remember a gorgeous blue satin dress made on purpose for the occasion. There was fancy marching, sometimes with piano and violin music, the Virginia reel, square dances and waltzes, but more group entertainment than dancing. Re­freshments were light,—punch and cakes or sandwiches.”

Mrs. Herbert W. Damon (Harriet Hollis) speaks of the receptions when Mr. Moore was principal, as did Mrs. Halleran. “They were held quite frequently and the guests dressed elaborately. The boys didn’t go to the parties with girls but went home with them. There were differ­ent forms of entertainment. One was a masquerade party for the high- school people. Sometimes papers were read. Jokes on people were sometimes given.”

Mrs. Damon remembers the facul­ty in her high-school days, and also the students. “Miss Halleck was an excellent woman, well educated. She taught English and botany. Miss Douglas was a good teacher in astronomy, algebra, and history. Marguerite Gilbert was another teacher. Henry Brown was principal in 1887-’88. He was interested in science. He talked about the proba­bility of finding natural gas in this vicinity. In the Latin classes there was considerable rivalry between Norman Bentley, Lottie Cross, and Fred Whitney.

One feature of chapel exercises was the giving of quotations. One day someone gave one which had been given over and over. Belle Calkins stood up and said, “There is nothing new under the sun.”

The Alumni Association was or­ganized informally by Edgar Coit Morris and Tom Hayden on the second floor in the rooms with double doors (Dec. 19, 1889). I was at that meeting. There was a group of twenty or thirty people present who showed considerable enthusi­asm at the prospect of annual ban­quets and the chance to get together and talk over reminiscences of the Academy. The banquets in the fol­lowing years proved to be as enjoy­able as anticipated. I wouldn’t have missed one for anything. There were great spreads. The people were en­thusiastic and united in their inter­est^ and all were eager to make the banquets a success. Some of the toasts were the result of much prep­aration. Others were extemporane­ous. Through all was a fine school spirit.”

Mrs. Damon taught in the Acade­my from January, 1894 to 1901. Shewas brought to the faculty as an additional teacher. Her subjects in­cluded German (taught for the first time after it had been discontinued for a number of years), English in training class, physiology, geogra­phy, rhetoric, and advanced arithme­tic, though primarily English and German. Her co-workers, as she gives them, reveal names familiar to many of us: “ ‘Fan’ Griffis, who taught Latin and history, and had charge of chapel exercises; ‘Fan’ Betts, who taught grades and then training -class; Grade Henderson Whitney, civics, science, and history; Alice Walker, mathematics; Minnie Walk­er, Latin; Marion Wright Warner, English; Grace Rich, now in Brook­lyn Normal School, art (She spoke at one of the institutes when the speaker from Albany failed to come); Mina Loomis, fourth and fifth grades; Sophia Mattison, sec­ond and third grades; Bessie Perry from Oswego, eighth grade; Caroline Marcy, first grade; E. G. Bridgham, and S. R, Shear, principal.

The teachers’ institutes were out­standing events of the school year. All the teachers and training class pupils in the commissioner’s district went to these and stayed a week. At the institute meetings the instruc­tors came chiefly from Albany. A spelling match was one feature of every institute, which was held every spring. Ten or twelve teachers often roomed in a private house. For diversion they played children’s games such as railroad.”

Since in addition to her teaching experience Mrs. Damon was after­wards on the Board of Education, she has had wide experience in school affairs. Her father was also on the Board of Education for about fifteen years. “My father,” Mrs. Damon says, “secured Mr. Shear as principal of the Academy after it was reorganized in 1892 and I be­lieve the school was fortunate to have him in this readjustment per­iod. His genial disposition won him much popularity.”

If Mr. L. J. Farmer had time in the midst of his busy days, he could tell us many stories of life in the Academy in his time. As it is, we did get these bits from his memory’s recollections. “There was one com­mencement night in 1880, when the exercises were held in Tucker’s Hall. There were only two graduates, Jes­sie Becker (Gamble) and Franc Moore, the daughter of Seneca Moore.” Mr. Farmer chuckled as he called to mind the first alumni ban­quet in December 1890 when S. C. Huntington, Jr. was toastmaster. My. Huntington called for one toast, “The Ideal Woman—to love her is a liberal education” “from the liber­ally educated young man—Herbert Calkins.” Mr. Farmer seems to have been liberally minded himself—he says he was always on the liberal side. It seems there was a boys’ de­bating club and the question came up: “Should the girls be allowed to join?” The liberals seemed to be winning. There was an indignation meeting on the front steps by those opposed to the idea. “Our side went upstairs and threw a pail of water on those on the front steps, which made them angry,” he declared. One girl called the opponents “my de­luded brethren.” The girls joined the society.

Mrs. Irving G. Hubbs speaks of .former principals. “There was Mr. Moore of whom Mrs. Halleran has spoken. Mr. Henry Brown wore high-heeled boots and was consid­ered a ‘lady’s man.’ Mr. Gorman was a very fine man, and Mr. Shear did ‘worlds’ for the school.”

Mrs. Ilubbs’ brother, Thomas W. Dixson, a lawyer in Syracuse, N. Y., was also a graduate of Pulaski Acad­emy. He tells some of the high lights of his school days. “I remember the principals, Mr. William Gorman and Mr. Henry Brown. A native of Ger­many, Mr. Carl Hartman, taught German and was a particularly good teacher in that subject. Miss Blais- dell taught French. There was a Glee Club in the school and a school paper, ‘The Academian’ published ‘if and when,’ sometimes quarterly. The name was changed to ‘The Academy Quarterly’ with the December 189 0 issue.

There was a debating society, ‘Theta Nu Epsilon.’ Discussion arose as to whether the society would keep that name or change to some other. Someone thought it should be a Greek letter society. Someone else thought this society wasn’t so good elsewhere and therefore the name should be changed. Eventually it was changed, but interest in debat­ing was, and continued to be, an important factor in student educa­tion and extra curricular activity. Frank Christman, who later was a state senator, was in school at this time and was active in debating.

The school was well located. The school grove was a pleasant spot, but some of the boys liked to wander across the river to the Delano saw­mill. This attracted some pf them to dare to ride the frame of the saw­mill.

One of the sensations of each school day was the arrival of one of the students, Fred Field, who came down from Richland riding on a mustang. The boys gathered around each morning to watch the arrival.

School athletics in those days meant baseball. The school played with Mexico and with Sandy Creek. Howard Naylor could pitch curves and was, therefore, in great demand. It was the beginning of the time when baseball players did pitch curves.”

(One number of “The Academy Quarterly,” edited by Dr. Charles E. Low and Attorney Thomas W. Dix­son, is in our possession and it is the source of much of our information about this period. Items from it are included in various parts of this history. Much credit is due the edi­tors for issuing a publication so full of permanent interest.)

A number of people to whom we have talked remember Mr. and Mrs. William C. Gorman. Mr. Gorman was principal 18 8 9-’9 2, and teacher of science. His wife, Ida T. Gorman, was preceptress. “T hey were thoughtful people. He made a study of his job and his problems. He tried to study out life and look out for his family and his business/’ This was the expressed opinion of one person.

“The Academy Quarterly” of De­cember 1890 gives some hints of the scope of Prin. Gorman’s activi­ties and those of the pupils of his day. “Prin. Gorman has made a fine collection of choice plants from wherever he could find them.” “Nearly every Monday morning we have been entertained in chapel with experiments performed by the physics class.” “Arrangements will soon be completed for prizes to be awarded at the close of the school year. They will be awarded for the highest standing in Regents exam­inations. The first will be given for the highest standing in preliminary studies. Another prize, a copy of Webster’s International Dictionary, will be given by Mr. Charles Toll- ner for the best papers in the natu­ral and physical sciences.” “At last a long felt want of the school has been supplied, and we have a class in elocution. During the past term Prin. Gorman has formed a class in elocution free to every scholar.” “F. V. Morris has rearranged the seats in chapel so that they face the en­trance. This affords much better light to the students. The arrange­ment of chapel seats will be familiar to many of the alumni, as they were arranged in the same manner several years ago.” “The class in physics this fall entered into the work full of interest and energy, and the same degree of enthusiasm has been main­tained throughout the term. The stu­dents themselves made a barometer apparatus for demonstration of the compressibility of gases and for use in connection with the air pump. When the subject of electricity was reached, the dynamo, which was purchased with the proceeds of the August number of ‘The Academian,’ was put into operation, and the uses and effects of dynamic electricity were fully shown. The old electric machine, which had stood idle and useless on the shelf for many years, was also put in repair and did good service. The greater part of the experiments ordinarily performed, may be given with no outlay of money, and students are encouraged in laboratory work and aided in making their own apparatus. Many valuable specimens have been added to the geological and natural history cabinets by the principal, who has a fine compound microscope and a well assorted supply of slides for illus­trating physiology, zoology, and bot­any.”

Dr. Harriet Doane remembers Jesse A. Ellsworth, principal 1888- ’89. “He was a graduate of Middle- bury College. Miss Blaisdell was a teacher here at the same time. Miss Ruth Gilbert from LeRoy taught Latin. (Dr. Doane didn’t mention the fact that she herself was an assist­ant editor of “The Academian,” an excellent school publication in the school year 1889-’90).

Mr. Charles C. Hutchins of the class of 1894 was in school both be­fore and after the change of sys­tem of administration, but his stories are not restricted to any one period. His first ones tell of the boarding school days when pranks were played outside of school hours. He calls to mind “the long hall on the third floor at each end of which was a window and a long rope securely fastened to the floor to serve the purpose of a fire-escape. For amuse­ment, when tired of study, the boys frequently assembled and engaged in a ‘tug of war’, using the fire-escape rope.

“An amusing1 incident was told me by one who wTas a member of the party involved. Mr. Duffy, a rather diminutive person as to stature, piled his firewood on the south side of the building. By means of the fire- escape rope the boys were replenish­ing their fire-wood supply by letting one of their number down. He would tie an armful of wood to the rope and on signal it would be drawn up. This continued until a sufficient sup­ply was obtained. Then the boy fas­tened the rope securely around his body, gave the signal, and his com­panions drew him back up to the third floor window to safety. This happened a number of times, but meanwhile the ‘Prof.’ was missing the wood. Under cover of darkness he stationed himself in the vicinity of the wood-pile. After observing the clever procedure for a time, he sud­denly appeared on the scene. The boy quickly disappeared in the adja­cent chestnut grove and the ‘Prof/ secured the rope around his own body and gave the signal. He was promptly drawn up almost to the window. Then his identity was dis­covered and down he went! The boys scampered to their rooms, blew out the lights and hastily retired for the night.

‘‘Often jokes were played on each other. On one occasion, while one of the boys was in class during the last period, one of the boys was stationed at the head of the stairs, as sentinel, while others entered his room and took the stove-pipe apart, stuffed it with a bag of potatoes, and put it back together. When the boy came up from his class, as was the custom, he began to make prepara­tion for his evening meal. He piled kindling wood in the stove and lighted a match. Within a very short time the room was filled with smoke. He opened the windows, took the pipe out of the chimney and found some smoke was going through. Nothing was wrong with the chim­ney. Announcing his trouble to his companions he soon had plenty of! sympathy and suggestions. Mean­while people in the community be­came frightened and nearly turned in the fire-alarm. The pipe was then taken apart and one of the boys dis­lodged the sack of potatoes. Said he, ‘I am going right down and report to Prof. Gorman.’ They all agreed that was the proper thing to do, and he did, but nothing was ever heard of it. Ordinarily such antics evoked a lecture by the principal at the be­ginning of morning chapel exer­cises.”

So-called practical jokes are often more amusing to the participants than to the victim, or others. They often led to serious difficulty, where only fun was intended. Hence the supervisors of the lads who lived in the school had to be ever on the alert. The boys slept, prepared their own meals and studied in the one room, according to Mr. Hutchins, and between times looked for amuse­ment.

He continues. “For a short time pranks had a hang-over under the union school regime. On one occa­sion Prin. Shear had occasion to be absent for a brief period. During his absence the preceptress, Miss Minnie Walker, was in charge. We had a janitor at that time, a memor­able personality, by the name of George Cole, a man with short dark hair, black eyes and stooped shoul­ders. During the noon hour a group of boys went up into the attic by way of the stairs and tied an old office chair to the bell-rope. When it came time for afternoon assembly, George rang the bell as usual, but no clang of the bell. Instead, lunk- dunk, punk-a-dunk, plunk-a-dunk! George heard suppressed laughter and giggles overhead and he quickly secured hammer and nails and nailed up the stairway door, the only ave­nue of escape except through a scuttle over the head of the stairs. In a dwindling and belated fashion the session assembled. When it be­came quiet, the preceptress stationed herself at a convenient place and as the boys dropped quietly from the scuttle above, she took their names. One fellow discovered what was going on and remained until all was quiet again and then dropped down and came marching into chapel with his back covered with cob-webs. Of course there were titters and gig­gles from the rest of the group, and his name was promptly recorded with the rest of the culprits. The next morning after chapel this group was summoned to Prin. Shear’s office. When later they emerged from the office, the expressions of levity and mischief had vanished. Often after­wards at the noon hour when ‘Old George’ was dusting, some of the boys would sit at the piano and play and sing: ‘Who did nail the door- door-door? George did, George did, George did nail the d-o-o-r,’ (a par­ody of ‘Who Did Swallow Jonah’.

 

George would roll those black eyes in their direction, but make no reply.”

Mrs. B. F. Hutchins (Helen Sny­der) refers to the Academy in 1891 when her husband lived on the third floor with Jesse Burdick and Charlie Hutchins, also F. W. Christ­man, later a New York state sena­tor. She says, “I was going to school also. School days of that time are a pleasant memory. The astronomy class under the direction of Prin. Gorman sometimes went up in the cupola to view the stars.”

Since all children of the village went to the academy building for their work beginning in the fall of 1892, the two public grade schools were given up. It is, therefore, fit­ting that at this point we insert some personal recollections of these schools.

Salina Street School The south side school, in the memory of all living residents with whom we have talked, was located on Salina street south of the rail­road track where Mr. Harry Lamb now lives. It was then, as now, a red brick structure.

Mrs. W. W. Jones (Mrs. Helen Woods DeMott) remembered ‘this school and says, “My sister, Kate Woods (Ludington), at one time taught in this school, and Kate Farmer (Laing) was another one of the teachers. In the days when Island Grove was popular as a picnic ground, the school went there for a picnic. The children marched two by two from the Salina street school to the grove.”

Mrs. Mabel Halleran speaks of the little gray chairs on pedestals which were used in the Salina street school at one time. Under each chair was a shelf to hold the books and slates.

Mrs. B. F. Hutchins (Helen Sny­der) has a vivid memory of this same brick school. ‘‘It was a one- room school with a bell on top. There was a central front door and within was a hall across the front with a girls’ side and a boys’ side. Inside the schoolroom, there was a teacher’s desk on a raised platform in front. Opening from this was a closet where the teacher put her wraps and where naughty children were put for punishment. (Only a few were put there.) Beside the teacher’s desk was a globe. Maps were on the wall and also a black­board for which a pointer was used. The seats of the room were double to hold two children.

‘‘The roll of pupils included these names: Anna and Susie Moulther,

Cora Box, Charlie Box, Martie Dodge, May Dodge, Jessie Farmer, Will Cross, John Hohman, Marion Hoh- man, Carrie Hohman, John Alsever, W. Dewey Alsever, Frank Brockman, Maude Reese, Carrie Eaton, Madge Eaton, Burnice Lyons, Dempey Lyons, Etta Pride, Grace and Helen Snyder. In 1880 there were about twenty-five pupils. That year Kate Woods (Ludington) was the teacher. Kate Farmer (Laing), a teacher whom the pupils adored, taught from 1881 to 1885. She used to take her pupils out under the tree on hot days and have spelling and reading les­sons. Was it fun! The maple tree of today was there in 1880 and apparently it was as big as now. Every day the pupils enjoyed a re­cess for fifteen minutes in the mid­dle of the forenoon and again in the afternoon, when they played games such as ‘blind man’s bluff’ and ‘duck on the rock.’ These are the reminis­cences of a child under seven.

‘‘I remember my first day at school. I was asked to point out the letter A on the blackboard. As I came back down the aisle, Charlie Box jumped up and threw his arms around me and kissed me. Cora Box and Grace Snyder, older sisters, were much embarrassed that their families should be so disgraced. Later, at home, Mrs. Box asked her young son why he did it. He replied he couldn’t help it.

“One day my sister, Grace, mis­pronounced a word and to help her remember, the teacher seated her on the edge of the platform. I began to cry and asked if I couldn’t go and sit beside Gracie.”

Mrs. E. H. Bunce (Elizabeth Jones) also speaks about the brick school. “Miss Dusenberry was my first teacher at the brick school. She had, as did her two successors, Miss Gertrude Dunn and Miss Sophia Mat- tison, a chart class. There was no kindergarten then. Miss Dunn I can remember better. We all liked her. She was young and had for her beau her future husband, Cal Burch. I can well recall our muffled, ‘First the pear and then the plum, Cally Burch and Gertrude Dunn.’ She married, and Sophia Mattison took her place as teacher in that one-room school. The old maple tree still stands in the front yard. In the rear was a boulder. It seemed huge to me then. Just what size it is I am not sure. However, that spot was always the ‘witches’ den.’ We played old witch just about every day. There was a board fence between there and Mrs. De Bois’ house. The fence blew down or de­cayed, but we still had the goal where it used to be. This goal was for ‘black man,’ another favorite game. During this period S. R. Shear was principal of the grade school on the corner of Bridge street. He used to come over to our school sometimes. I know he came in an official capacity, for we were always on our best behavior during his visits. He asked us many questions. Some of the pupils at the brick school whom I recall are these: Roy Austin, Ina Austin, Demp Lyons, Burnice Lyons, Flora Hohman, Ned Hough, Frank Hough, Mot Maltby, Cora Mosher, Willie Mosher, Nellie Perry, Nellie Woods, John Peach, Ward Parkhurst, Grace Clifford, and the Naylors. We received our drink­ing water from a fountain in front. I think it must have been spring water. We sang such songs as: ‘O the Little Busy Bee!’ ‘Swinging ’neath the Old Apple Tree’, ‘The Old Black Cat’, ‘Marching thro Georgia’ etc. The first words every child learned then were: ‘cat, rat, it, a’.

When I had finished the fourth grade (this being the highest grade in the school), I should have been pro­moted to the Church street school but since in that year, the Academy became “Union School and Acad­emy”, I started my fifth grade work at Pulaski Academy.

“The faculty of the Academy in the fall of 189 2 included names of well-known Pulaski residents. I would like to pay a tribute to Prin.

  1. R. Shear. His fine ‘chapel speeches’ certainly had a great effect upon the plan and character of my life. Every thought he gave us was a challenge for better living and higher achieve­ment. Every teacher I had was just grand, but outstanding as contribu­tors to what I am in life, I revere Frances King, Harriet Hollis, Frances Richardson and L. Grace Henderson. Probably others have been just as good, but certainly none others better. If all people could have their vision and their under­standing, what a world this would be!

“The school grove was attractive. The chestnut trees were beautiful and productive all over the grounds and on down the slope next to the river. I’ll not go on from here be­cause I know many will know the story of the Academy.”

Church Street Schools

The first Church street school was a brick structure situated on the ground where the Congregational church now stands. It was built be­fore 182 6, for in Crisfield Johnson’s “History of Oswego County” there is this item: “February 2, 1826 the lodge (Masonic Fellowship Lodge) removed to Masonic Hall located in the second story of the then called brick schoolhouse which was situated on the ground now occupied by the Congregational church.” Mr. D. C. Mahaffy went to school in that build­ing for a short time after the Maple avenue school was closed and until the academy building was opened. He says it faced Lake street at first, but after it was remodelled, it faced Church street. It had only one school room. His teacher there (about 1856) was Miss Kate Clark

(Mrs. Brainard Dixson).

When the brick school site became the property of the Congregational church, the school was transferred to the old Congregational church, (1865) which was on the ground now used for tennis courts. The building was remodelled for school purposes. Mary L. Forbes (Robinson) taught there about this time in 1865 or ’6 6. Her daughter, Dr. Mary Lechtrecker of Rockville Centre, New York and her sister, Mrs. Clara Forbes Soule of Ithaca, New York, say that there were two teachers in the school at that time and that it was a hard school to teach.

This probably accounts for the fact that in the middle of the seventies we find four teachers in this school. Even then, Mr. F. C. Whitney says there were sometimes as many as sixty children in a room. At the same time he says some children went to the Academy, if their par­ents wanted to pay the tuition.

Mrs. Harry Godsmark (Charlotte Cross) went to this school for all her grade work and she gives us the following information about it. “The building faced Church street. There were long steps in the middle of the front and double doors opening into a hall which extended the whole of the east end. At the north end of the hall were stairs leading to the second story. There were two rooms upstairs and two downstairs. The partition downstairs went north and south making a front room and a back room. Upstairs the rooms were arranged the other way, the parti­tion going east and west. The primary room upstairs had no desks but small separate chairs with small tin pockets under the seats for slates and primers. Lessons were taught chiefly from the blackboard. The other rooms had thirty desks. Each seat held two children, though some­times the seats were not all filled. In each room were a wall clock and a stove, usually a coal stove, though wood was used when I first went to school. If the stove needed more fuel during school hours, the

teacher put it on; otherwise the janitor attended to it.

“The principal of the school was a man who taught the seventh and eighth grades in the front room downstairs. The other three teach­ers were women. Miss Salma Webb was the teacher for the fifth and sixth grades in the back room down­stairs. She often had the pupils line up and spell down. Sometimes her pupils marched out of the room at dismissal singing the multiplication table. The principal rang the bell, a hand bell with a wooden handle, outside the front door for the open­ing of school. The rest of the time the bell stood on his desk. (In later years there the pupils went to school by the academy bell.) Pupils were dismissed by the teachers.

“The Catholics held services in the school building all the time I at­tended school. The children were always careful to leave the front room in order on Friday ready for their service on Sunday.”

Mrs. B. F. Hutchins (Helen Sny­der) is careful to call this Church steet school the “Public School”, not “Grade School” to distinguish it from the “Academy.” She says, “I wrent there in 1882 while repairs were being made to the south side brick school. Miss Kate Farmer, the teacher, went with the pupils. I re­member a cream-colored building trimmed with green with a bell on top. On the south side was an out­side stairway leading to the second story. There were folding doors be­tween the two downstairs rooms which were opened for morning exercises. An organ was used to help with the music. Miss Deusen- berry taught first and second grades; Miss Laura Aird third and fourth grades; Miss Ida McChesnev from Oswego taught fifth and sixth grades, and S. H. Lyman, the prin­cipal, taught seventh and eighth. Afterwards Cynthia Beadle taught fifth and sixth grades. Mr. S. R. Shear followed Mr. Lyman as prin­cipal of the ‘Public School’.”

To Miss Katherine Drummond we are indebted for the picture of this

public school on Church street. It was taken in the early 1880’s.

Union School and Academy The change of school system was made in 18 92. “The Church street school was sold and moved bodily to the Frank Woods farm on Salina street, now owned by Mr. B. Clark Snyder of the Academy faculty,” says Mrs. Frank P. Betts (Kathleen Clark). “The building was used as a barn for a number of years but was struck by lightning and burned. When this school was dismantled, one of the blackboards was taken to the Masonic Temple on Broad street because on the back of it were pictures and symbols of Masonry. I have written on this blackboard many a time.” There it is at the present time, upstairs in the Masonic Temple. (There is an­other story to the effect that the reverse side of this blackboard was used for Masonic insignia when the second story of the Lake street brick school was used as a Masonic Temple in the years after 18 26.) Mrs. Betts says that some grade children went to the Academy by paying the tuition, instead of going to the pub­lic school, but she was advised to wait until the change was made. She, therefore, went to the Church street school for her grade work. She con­tinues: “Mr. Shear promoted the consolidation of the schools and when he was made principal of the Academy, he made the union free school a success.”

The Academy under the new management early began extra ac­tivities. Mrs. Earle McChesney furnishes us with a copy of the program of the first annual prize contest held in 1893.

First Annual Prize Contest
Betts Opera House,

Thursday Evenng, Nov. 13, 1893
Program
Invocation

Music, Orchestra; Fanny C. Stevens, “Battle/’ by Schiller; Frances S. King, “A Legend of Brussels;” T. E. Hayden, “The Volunteer Soldiers;” Cheeny Flem­ming, “Fenian Speech”; Helen B. Beadle, “The Modern David;” music,

Orchestra; Floy M. Betts, “The Miser;” G. B. Potter, “Character of Napoleon;” N. S. Bentley, “Pa­triotic Appeal;” F. A. Box, “Parr- hasius and the Captive;” Lottie A. Cross, “How He Saved St. Michael;” Beulah W. Muzzy, “Poor Little Joe;” Charles Flemming, “Vision of the Past;” Music, Orchestra; A. Blanche Hadley, “If I Were President;” E. Colt Morris, “Keenan’s Charge;” Emma Chamberlain, “Polish Boy;” W. H. Plardie, “True Nobility;” Maud S. Brooks, “Mission of Educa­tion;” L. J. Farmer, “Pyramids Not All Egyptian.”

Items about several other prize speaking contests were found in some of the early copies of the “Con- scrip turn Annum.” In the third annual contest held in May 189 5 Jessie M. Holmes recited “Hearts­ease” and “Money Musk,” the latter with soft piano accompaniment by Miss Frances King. Orren J. Rus­sell gave a declamation, “Spartacus to the Gladiators.” Cornelia Hib­bard received first prize for girls for her rendering of “Incident of the Johnstown Flood” and “How We Fought the Fire.” Arthur Naylor took first prize for boys for giving “Model Sermon” and “Last Charge of Marshall Ney.” “The Old Actor’s Story” given by Helena B. Cox took second prize for girls. “Claudius and Cynthia” was given by Claude H. Jones and “The Eagle’s Rock” by Ella M. Rich. Arthur E. Clark won second prize for boys for his render­ing of “The Black Hor$e and His Rider.”

In the 189 6 contest the follow­ing people participated: Carrie A.

Wood, Curtiss A. White, Gertrude H. Whipple, Ward M. Stevens, M. Cath­erine Withered, Edward W. Sprague, Susie B. Hilton, and William A. Hil­ton.

The next year the first prize for recitation went to Miss Mame War­ner and second to Miss Dora Naylor; first in declamation went to Mr. Fordyce M. Lewis and second to Mr. John G. Bourne.

The program for the sixth annual prize speaking contest held in Betts Opera House was given in the Pu­laski Democrat May 4, 1898. Prizes went to Miss Bessie Davis, first; Miss Cora Robbins, second; Miss Frances Stone, honorable mention; Mr. W. D. Smith, first for boys; Mr. Fred Hallenbeck, second.

Programme: Invocation, Rev. A.

  1. Emmons. Instrumental Solo, Miss Lorena Calkins. Recitation (a) “The Home Concert,’’ (b) “The Burning Prairie,” Miss Edith Wightman. Dec­lamation, “The Present Crisis,” Mr. Edward Doneburg. Vocal Solo, Mr. Arthur Clark. Recitation, “Ichabod Crane,” Miss Frances Stone. Decla­mation, “Senator Thurston’s Address on Cuba,” Mr. Walter D. Smith. Vocal Solo, Miss Grace Clifford. Reci­tation, “Little Bill,” Miss Cora Rob­bins. Declamation, “Senator Mason’s Cuban Speech,” Mr. Fred Hallen­beck. Vocal Solo, Miss Mabel Guile. Recitation, “Dora,” Miss Bessie Davis. Vocal Solo, Mr. Howard W. Hollis.

[The subsequent career of Mr. Fred Hallenbeck sounds like fic­tion, but Dr. A. G. Dunbar, school physician, knows that it is fact. He says, “It was Mr. Hallenbeck’s one ambition to become the best stenog­rapher in the world. When Theodore Roosevelt was president of the United States and took a trip to the Panama Canal Zone, he asked to have a stenographer recommended to him. Mr. Hallenbeck was the man recommended. President (Roosevelt took a liking to him and found him an accurate stenographer, as he made only four mistakes in three years. When the war broke out, Mr. Hallenbeck was made chief dispatch­er of the navy. No ship could move without his order. After the war he was given the opportunity of study­ing along any line. He chose law. Later he became district attorney in the county in which Annapolis is located. He still lives in Annapolis, though retired.”]

There were debating societies in the nineties. The Theta Pi Alpha for girls was organized December 20, 1894. The first presidents were Mar­ian E. Wright, Jessie M. Holmes, Carrie B. Allen, and Bessie B. Shear. Mrs. Jessie Holmes Clark recalls the society and the fun they had in initiations. “The glove filled with wet sand was a frightful hand of welcome in the dark. One time the girls had a piece of phosphorus which they rubbed on a sheet, mak­ing a face which glowed in the dark. A piece of the phosphorus dropped on the floor, and they were alarmed lest it would cause a fire. It was a dangerous thing to do, but the chemistry teacher was present and allowed them to do it. The ladies of the faculty belonged to the society as well as the girls—- Harriet Hollis, the Walker girls, ‘Fan’ King and Grace Henderson.” Mrs. Clark also tells the following incident of her school days. “Mr. Shear, the principal, thought the school should honor Mr. Charles Tollner, Sr. (Mr. Tollner was on the Board of Education about ten years, was for a time president of the Board of Education, had worked for the success of the union school and had contributed to its apparatus and library from his own means. In the village he was the leading manufac­turer and the man who had estab­lished the electric light and natural gas plants of the village. He was born in Prussia and lived in Ger­many until he was twenty-three years of age.) Accordingly, Mr. Shear had all the pupils of the school practice the German song, ‘The Watch on the Rhine.’ When the day came, Mr. Tollner arrived at the school. All the grade children marched up to the chapel on the third floor and joined with the high- school students in singing lustily ‘The Watch on the Rhine.’ Mr. Toll­ner didn’t blink an eye. He looked around, apparently oblivious to the meaning of it all.” He was evidently too much of an American to be deeply thrilled by the German song.

Mr. George Millard Davison was principal of Pulaski Academy only one year, 1897-1898, but in that time he won the esteem of those who knew about his work. He had a high scholastic record, in jhigh school and college. He was a grad­uate of Owego High School, Cornell University, and a member of Phi

Beta Kappa. After Mr. S. R. Shear’s resignation as principal of Pulaski Academy, the Board of Education selected Mr. Davison from among thirty applicants for the position.

Mr. Walter Erskine, president of the class of 19 02, now of Washing­ton, D. C., speaks of Mr.Davison’s development of the library as an outstanding achievement of his principalship. Before Mr. Davison’s time, the pupils saw only a feW reference books on a shelf. The Board of Education and the princi­pal issued certificates of stock in the Pulaski Union School and Academy Library to citizens of Pulaski who would contribute to the library fund. One share of stock entitled the own­er of the certificate to have his name written as donor, in two dol­lars’ worth of books. A considerable sum was thus raised and invested in books. A room off the principal’s office was used for the books, and they could be drawn from a window in the primary room, which was adjoining.

There was an outstanding inci­dent in February 189 8 told by Mrs. Helen Woods Warner: “The sinking of the ‘Maine’ caused a great deal of excitement throughout the country. In Pulaski Academy there was a gen­eral assembly in the chapel on the third floor. In addition to the high- school people, all the grade chil­dren, except the smallest ones, marched into the assembly and sat two and three In a seat. The room was packed and pupils were stand­ing around the room and in the aisles. There was a dissertation by the principal, Mr. Davison, and patri­otic songs were sung.”

The next principal was Charles M. Bean, a graduate of Cornell Uni­versity. During the ten years of his administration many of Pulaski’s present citizens passed through the doors of the school and their mem­ories of school life are inseparable from the man who was at the head of the institution. Some of the stories of this period are humorous; others are more serious.

There seems to have been a fam­ous spider which appeared one day, during chapel, in front of Miss Hen­derson. She whispered to the next teacher to wait and she would grab it. Three boys in the attic heard her say it and quickly pulled the string. Who do you think the boys were? Joe Wright, John Snow, and Orimel Olmstead! Miss Henderson didn’t get the spider. The boys fastened it so it hung just below the ceiling. Later in the day Mr. Bean climbed on the desk and cut it down. The same spider was later used in the school entertainment “Babes in Toyland”—the spider that came and sat beside Miss Muffet. “Billy” Mal­loy made it.

Mrs. E. R. Warner (Helen Woods) also tells about a situation in her high-school days which caused con- siderable merriment. “Mrs. Tyler, widow of Captain Tyler, lived in the house now owned by E. M. Hastings. She rented the vacant lot toward the school building for the pasturage of the court house cow. Of course, she didn’t want the grass to be trampled down, but the boys from the school liked to play ball there and sometimes did. Mrs. Tyler came out one day and drove them off with a horse whip. The boys held a mock trial to try the aforesaid Mrs. Tyler for preventing the boys from using her land as a ball field. Mrs. Tyler was put on the witness stand. She appeared in her sun bonnet and no one knew her. ITer testimony was rare. Sometime later, it was re­vealed that the Mrs. Tyler on the witness stand was none other than Laurence Ray Trumbull.

“One morning Mr. Bean opened the Bible to find one of his favorite passages of Scripture—the twenty- third psalm, but the pages had been pasted together. He seemed quite at a loss as to what other passage to choose.

“Another morning four or five notes went down together on the piano when one was struck for the opening note of the morning hymn. Someone had fastened the felts of the hammers together. Anything to start school off with a whirl was considered funny.

“On the piano were two busts. (Were they Shakespeare and Beetho­ven?) One day these were found dressed up as rowdies, perfectly ridiculous.

“Other irregularities were some­times attempted in the study hall in the absence of the principal. The boys, however, couldn’t go too far with pranks, for Mr. Bean might be coming down the hall. His approach usually was signalled by the jingling of keys. He would then find the room in perfect order.

“We had music in the grades and drawing in high school. Music in the grades was taught from charts on tripods by the grade teachers, super­vised by someone else. I remember the little, long drawing room on the second floor—Miss Ward was the teacher, the lame woman who was always smiling, always sweet and lovely.

“Oh yes, I remember the day that Mr. Elmer Bridgham left town. He left in the middle of the year. On the morning that he was leaving, the faculty and pupils cried at morning exercises. Eyes were red. The wom­en of the faculty were openly weep­ing. They ‘loved him to death/ A large delegation of faculty and stu­dents went to the station to see him off right after the exercises. He had been here a year and a half and wasn’t married at that time. Pie has since then taught in Pittsfield, Mass, and is at the present time a super­vising principal of the grammar schools in that city. He loves young people and sees their point of view. Mr. Bridgham likes nature. He has done much with flowers at his Pitts­field home.

“In 19 02 athletic games were sometimes played with other schools out of town. How did they get there? There were different modes of trans­portation, cmite different from those of to-day. The team and the rooters went to a football game in Sandy Creek by train. The baseball team went to an out-of-town game by means of the big four-seated carry- alls with teams of horses.”

“The beginnings of physical edu­cation came about 1900 to 19 02,” says Mrs. Frank Lane (Edna Fox). “Miss Henderson was the instructor. All liigh-school people, unless ex­cused, had to stay after school and go through a few exercises.

“Music was not ordinarily taught in this period. Miss Henderson led the music for morning exercises, but it was not taught in regular classes. Some were interested in it, how­ever, and they had a man come out from Oswego Normal once a week for a few weeks. Those who wished stayed for a half hour or so after school and paid something toward the expense. The man explained some phases of musical technique.

“The chapel was more than mor­ning exercises. It was a lasting in­fluence, not merely an hour’s enter­tainment.”

Mrs. O. B. Olmsteacl (Anna Co­burn) remembers with appreciation the support and helpful hints which Mr. Bean gave his teachers. She says: “Mr. Bean knew all his chil­dren, their parents and families. He considered it a part of his work, and he told his teachers to know the children outside of school. He him­self went out into the country to get more non-r-esident pupils jand thus knew the children in their home environments.

“There was a grade entertainment each year put on by the high-school teachers, assisted by the grade teachers. Miss Douglas, the training class teacher, also taught music in the grades and knew the children. For the 19 05 entertainment she very cleverly planned “The Babes in Toy- land” and was assisted in carrying it out by Miss Tucker and me. Mr. Bean wanted as many children as possible in it. It was held in Betts Opera House and was given before a full house.

“Mr. Tracy Wilder, one of the boys who participated in the entertain­ment, remembers the song hit given on this occasion. One stanza and the chorus follow:

If Philip Box should prophesy

By sun spots on the moon That the Syracuse Northern would run

Straight through to Greenland soon

Through Oswego County’s new brick barn

Past Broad Street churches doors How loud would the ministers have to preach

To drown the engines’ roars.

Chorus

Put down six and carry two * * * Gee! but this is hard to do * * * You can think and think and think Till your brains are numb,

I don’t care what the teacher says, I can’t do this sum.

The first year Mrs. Olmstead taught in Pulaski there was little enthusiasm for football. She contin­ues: “The girls didn’t go to the

games and the boys were discour­aged. Miss Tucker and I helped to arouse interest iby promoting pep meetings with songs and yells. There was a public supper at Irene Noyes’ home to get money for the football team. The girls got together and made pennants to carry to the games. These were fastened on the ends of whips. There came to be a good attendance in spite of the fact that the onlookers had to chase up and down the side lines in order to see the game, as there were no bleachers. The boys felt better to have the increased interest in their sport.

“I remember standing guard near the main stairway on the third floor, the girls’ end of the hall, to see that there was not too much noise or loitering. At the north end of the hall was a narrow stairway leading down to the second floor, which the boys used. This w;as guarded by “Tommy” Tucker (Miss Maude Tucker). The stairway was used by the boys on the first day of school as a place for initiation stunts. The new boys had to climb up them on their hands and knees.

“Every morning we sat on the platform for chapel exercises. Mr. Bean read from the Bible, often his favorite chapter, “The days of our years are three score years and ten. … So teach us to number our days that we may apply our hearts unto wisdom.” This was followed by the Lord’s Prayer and singing— a hymn and some other from the Academy Song Book. It was an in­fluence which we wish the children of to-day might have. Someone (Irene Noyes, Katherine Wright, Anna Dodge and others) played a march while the pupils were passing to classes.”

“Miss Anna Coburn (Mrs. O. B. Olmstead) was a real school mother,” says one of her former pupils, Katherine Richards. “She in­spired her pupils to like Latin be­cause she herself was enthusiastic about it. She was vitally interested in people and things. Instead of a cool, intellectual detachment the pupils ex­perienced an affectionate, sympathetic interest. To show her response to nature I would like to mention the time Miss Coburn let her pupils go to the window to see a scarlet tana- ger which perched on a tree near the building.

“In 1915-1916 and 1916-1917 I taught under Principal W. S. Dro- man. He was a forceful man with in­tense enthusiasms. He was interested in oratory and he would go a long way to hear a great orator, for ex­ample Newell Dwight Hillis. He worked for the Friday rhetoricals and with the students for prize speaking. He himself did much of the drilling for the Moody prize speaking con­tests.

“The next year I taught under Principal William Thomson. He was the ‘smiling principal’ with a pleas­ant, easy manner.”

Another teacher’s point of view comes from Miss Mabel Martin who was here 19 0 6-19 08. She taught training class and second and fourth year English. In addition, she acquired another subject in this way. She says: “I was teaching agricul­ture in my training class. (We used to dissect plants and study plant pests, sprouting things etc.) Mr. Bean came to my room one day, sat down and looked at the ceiling. I said, ‘What’s on your mind?’ He re­plied, ‘I’ve got to start biology—the law requires it. I want you to take it.’ ‘But,’ I protested, ‘Look at all the subjects I already teach.’ He answered, Til tell you. If the other

teachers take it, they would have to have a lot of new apparatus. All the equipment we have includes two microscopes, an aquarium, and a few tables and chairs in the north­west room on the third floor. You’ll have to make some of your appara­tus. Mr. Garvey will take your psy­chology and I’ll take your civics and we’ll give you an hour.’ I told him it would take more than an hour. I took the class, however. Hugh Whit­ney and George Bartlett helped get things. We had big jars, branches, etc., and fruit jars for other speci­mens. Fish and frogs were found for the aquarium. George brought cocoons. When the class took field trips, George was the leader. He knew where to go.

“The training class room was in the northwest room on the second floor. We had flower boxes with var­ious kinds of seeds all around the room. In the closet I kept a little medicine such as camphor and aro­matic spirits of ammonia. One day a girl was ill and came to me. The doctor took her home. Afterward Mr. Bean came to my room and looked around the ceiling. I said, ‘What’s the matter with the child?* ‘Well,’ he said, ‘the doctor says he thinks it is nothing but smallpox.’ (It was a false alarm fortunately.)

“Of course, I always remember the Philogian. Some of the girls came to me and asked my assistance. After asking Mr. Bean if I could, I con­sented. The initiations into this so­ciety will not easily be forgotten— the handshake with a glove soaked in vinegar, riding the goat (a bar­rel), and walking on beans.

“Miss Grace Smith, the teacher with the pretty red hair, taught drawing when I was there, and Miss Isabelle Robertson, the lively ‘Brownie,’ taught music. Miss Doo­little was an efficient teacher of mathematics. She later married Mr. Bean.’’

The Pulaski postmaster, Mr. Fran­cis Daly, when asked about his school days, laughed and said his first recollection was of the day he began school when he was not quite five years of age. He wore a little

white blouse and had curls. The principal, Mr. Shear, picked him up in his arms and carried him up­stairs to show “the youngest pupil.’’ Mr. Daly remembers the arithmetic speed tests which Miss Anna Wil­liams conducted in seventh grade. (His classmates remember that Francis’ paper usually came down first on the table along with those of John Davis and Russell Bean. Phys­ics experiments he worked with ease. Of course, he didn’t mention the Latin vocabulary matches under Miss Coburn.)

He tells of the excitement among the school children on the night the village voted on the proposition to build an annex to the original school building (1906). After the decision in favor of the proposition was an­nounced at the school meeting, a hundred or a hundred fifty of them formed an extemporaneous parade and marched all over town.

A tablet was placed on the wall of the old building near the sixth grade room with the names of the 19 06 Board of Education to com­memorate the building of the an­nex, according to Mrs. Alice Clark Campbell (Mrs. T. A. Campbell). She knew about it because her father, Charles K. Clark was a member of the Board of Education at that time. To quote: “After the fire which destroyed the building in December, 1937, my son, Charles, found the tablet under the debris of the ruins and wanted to take it home, since his grandfather’s name was on it. Mr. Lynn Smith, the law­yer for the school, told him he would have it cleaned and placed in the new building.

“Both of my sons were interested in athletics and in music. Thomas, of the class of 1933 played football throughout his time in high school. His freshman year was the first time they had had football in about twenty years. They hadn’t had it in connection with the school since Dougal Campbell broke his arm and some other boys got hurt and the authorities called it off. At the be­ginning of the season the members of the school orchestra went around town in a truck to arouse interest in football. Thomas played his vio­lin. Both Thomas and Charles played center in basketball and were cap­tains of tlieir teams. When the band was started (1931-1932), Thomas played the trombone. Charles was also in the original band, starting when he was in sixth grade. He still plays the baritone horn in this his post graduate year.”

Since this is jumping ahead a gen­eration, we shall now go back to the time of Principal Bean.

“The Philogian was an outstand­ing feature of my high-school days,” says Winifred Davis Bentley. “W© held the first meeting at Mr. Bean’s house. I remember that I was on that first debate arguing the ques­tion: ‘Resolved that Washington was a greater man than Lincoln.’ We had considerable practice in debat­ing before the end of our senior year, and we won’t forget it. Miss Martin was our faculty adviser. Every year, near the end of the school year we held a banquet with a toastmistress and a program of toasts.

“When I first went to high school, the chapel-study hall was on the third floor. The morning exercises were a part of the daily schedule. Miss Helen Douglas led the singing and I remember her pet expression: ‘More volume!’ We sang songs from the Academy Song Book—football songs, various college songs such as ‘Upidee’, etc., ‘Wait for the Wagon,’ and our own school song, ‘The Crim­son and the Blue,’ written by Ar­thur Fremont Rider of the class of 1901.

“In the fall of 19 06 when I re­turned to school for my junior year, we had our study hall on the second floor in the new annex. It was a long room with new single seats and desks, accommodating over a hun­dred pupils. There was a platform at the south end for the teachers. Adjoining the study hall on the south were two classrooms, also in the new annex.”

In the “Gleanings” of the ’07 “Conscriptum Annum,” written by Ora Bentley we find this tribute to Miss Bessie Rhines, the Latin and Greek teacher:

“Such all might hope to imitate with

ease,

Yet while they strive the same suc­cess to gain

Should find their labor and their hopes in vain.”

In the “Gleanings” of the ’08 “Conscriptum Annum,” written by Winifred Daly, we find it said of Miss Helen Bentley:

“For she is just the quiet kind, Whose natures never vary,

Like streams that keep a summer mind

Snow-hid in January.”

Did you know that Florence Far­rington and Mabel Richardson were made members of the Phi Beta Kappa society for their high scholar­ship in Syracuse University at the end of their college courses?

In the “Gleanings of ’09” written by Ruth Seamans we find this trib­ute to Mr. Claude N. Brown, prin­cipal for the year 19 08-19 09: “Thou wert our guide, philosopher and friend.”

“In August 19 09 Mr. Brown had the opportunity to go to Cohoes,” says Mrs. E. R. Warner, “but the Board of Education did not want to release him unless a successor was found. A few weeks after school opened, Mr. George M. Haight was secured and Mr. Brown went to Cohoes. Mr. Haight, in turn, had an­other opportunity and was released from his position as principal of Pulaski Academy early iii January, 1910.” In the short time that he was here Mr. Haight was ably assist­ed by the preceptress, Miss May I. Woods. Mr. Haight has again a con­tact with Pulaski since he is re­ceiver for the Pulaski National Bank,

After Mr. Haight resigned from the principalship, Mr. Gregory An­drews became his successor, coming from the Cascadilla School, a private school in Ithaca, N. Y. Mary Davis said of him in her “Gleanings” at the commencement of 1910:

“Traits has he three,

Reserve, deliberation, and ac­curacy.”

It was during Mr. Andrews’ prin- cipalship that the Moody library was given for the use of the people of Pulaski.

Afterwards Mr. Andrews married May I. Woods. He is now vice principal of Vocational High School in Syracuse and is also head of the mathematics department.

Mr. Richard A. Bartlett was the next principal. Of him it is said in the “Gleanings” by a training class girl, Maude E. Curtiss:

“Never idle a moment,

But thrifty and thoughtful of others.”

The training class “Gleanings” of 1913 written by Nellie West (Mrs. A. V. DeLong) speak of the teacher, Miss Tollerton, thus:

“My frown is sufficient correction,

My love is the law of the school.”

While Evelyn Scheutzow (Mrs. O.

  1. Trowbridge) was teaching the seventh grade in the Academy, there was a group of musicians from the faculty and the pupils who played in an orchestra in the year 1913- 1914 under the leadership of Miss Mary Clark (Mrs. Harry Hinman), the music teacher. Mrs. Trowbridge was the accompanist. She says: “Claude Bortel and Ed. Parker played violins; Mr. Bartlett, the principal, the bass violin. There were three Flagg boys who had musical ability and all played instruments in the orchestra. ‘Trob’ played the cornet, ‘Polly’ (Mary Clark), the banjo, and Charles Storrs was clever at the drums. The orchestra was in demand for church banquets and various entertainments in town and also in Sandy Creek.”

“The Easter trip to Washington and Philadelphia in 1915 was the

outstanding event in my high-school career,” says Mrs. W. Stanley Brown (Eva Ingersoll). “It was a week of aching feet and sleepless nights, but a week packed with everything we could see. Nothing could be any more fun than what we experienced, and we touched the high spots in sightseeing. The pupils earned part of the money for the trip by enter­tainments during the year, and those who went paid the balance. Twenty-five or twenty-six from our high school enjoyed the excursion, seniors, juniors, post-graduates and training clas^ students. Mr. Dro- man, the principal, promoted the idea and conducted the party, hav­ing had previous experience in this line.

“1914 was the first year of the Moody prize speaking contests and

scholarship prizes. The speaking con­tests were open to any one who wished to enter. ‘Stan’ was one of the contestants in 1914. Nelson Pirnie won the first prize. The con­test was held in Betts’ Opera House. The scholarship prizes were incen­tives to both academic and pre-aca­demic pupils in the regular school work.”

Mr. Clarence Gorman says that school life went on smoothly when lie was in Pulaski Academy. “Con­ditions were good. Since Mr. O. B. Trowbridge was the only man on the faculty besides the principal, it fell to him to stir things up a bit for the boys. This he did most ably and was the leader in everything. Besides his work for the ‘ag’ de­partment he coached athletics which at that time meant baseball. The baseball team was usually a ‘win­ning’ team. There was no football and no place to play basketball.

“There were two debating socie­ties, the Beta Alpha for boys and the Philogian for girls. The Beta Alphas had several debates during the year which were of value and the society was a worth-while social or­ganization. Mr. Trowbridge was a great help to the Beta Alphas. Once or twice a year the boys debated against the Philogians.” Mr. Gor­man says he doesn’t remember which side won.

Mr. Alexander Pirnie of the class

of 1920, now a prominent lawyer and useful citizen of Utica, N. Y., speaks for the Pirnie boys: “We are greatly interested in your work in­cident to supplying a history of the old Academy. It is true that ‘for about eighteen years our family had one of its members in attendance at the old school and that many glorious memories are identified with the Academy building which is now destroyed. I am afraid that the recollections are of such a per­sonal character that they would add little to the historical significance of your effort. My thoughts might include certain moments of disci­pline, athletic events, amateur thea­tricals, opportunities of debate and scholastic milestones. However, I am of the opinion that outstanding among the memories would be an appreciation of some of the fine men and women, particularly the latter, whose glorious personalities added much to my progress and happiness during Academy days. Any attempt to Single out individuals unless com­plete would be most unsatisfactory. Certain people helped unwittingly at times when the influence of charac­ter and mature judgment was timely. It is unfortunate that records and statistics can never memorialize the finest achievements of education. Those of you who have given your lives to teaching know so well that your finest accomplishments are found in the intangible influence on the character of your students, much of which you yourselves cannot fully appraise.

(Two of the Pirnie boys are now lawyers. Another is an outstanding naturalist and the fourth has the responsibility of a school princi­pal.)

The years of the war show a de­cided slowing up of school activities. Mrs. E. H. Dillenbeck (Drissie Closen) says there was “nothing do­ing” when she taught here in 1917- ’18 and 1918-’19. “They were hectic years throughout the country. Many young people were working in Wash­ington and hence there was a short­age of teachers. There was little in the line of social activities, no facul­ty parties such as those which had helped to keep up the enthusiasm of teachers in the preceding years. The teachers worked in the Red Cross rooms some of the evenings. It was a time when people were helping the government in one way or an­other. Children bought thrift stamps and the teachers supervised the sale of these.

“In 1918 the ‘flu’ epidemic swept the country. School was closed for six weeks in Pulaski. Since help was scarce, some of the teachers worked in the milk plant for Mr. Rogers until school reopened.

“There were few extra-curricular activities for the pupils except the Moody prize speaking contests. These were held as usual, but the ‘Con- scriptum Annum’ was not published in 1918. There was no other school publication until ‘The Crimson and Blue’ made its appearance with the January number in 1919.”

“In the year 1919-1920 I taught training class at the Academy,” says Mrs. J. E. Abbott ( Frances Carpen­ter). “Commissioner Joseph Bonner, who recently died (May 19 39), had supervision over the training of teachers in this district, and he took charge of the examination papers after they were rated and sent them to Albany. The training class room was on the second floor in the northwest corner. Eva Ingersoll (Brown) taught the eighth grade in the room adjoining. Vivian Murray taught seventh grade, and Mrs. Plarte, second grade. Mr. Thomson was principal. A. W. Plough had charge of the agricultural depart­ment. Olive Fink (now Mrs. O. C. Risch of Flushing, N. Y.) taught English. It was Mary Ronan’s first year here. Fern Robinson had Latin and French, and Ina Knollin (Mrs. Fred Thomas) history. Miss Knollin was ill the latter part of the year, and the other teachers were asked to take her classes. I taught her American history students from March to June. It was hard work but very interest­ing.

“I remember the Moody library, which was in a room by itself near the office of the principal. It pro­vided a library atmosphere which suggested reading for pleasure.”

Grace Brown (Mrs. Harold Bur- hans) of the class of 1916 taught

the first grade in the Academy for two years, 1919-1921. She tells of her first day at school, which was her first experience in teaching. Prin­cipal Thomson’s two young sons— the twins—arrived at school for the first of their school experience. Teacher and young pupils were all scared. Mr. Thomson “happened” in to see how things were going, and the twins ran to him. One got hold of one leg, and the other boy clung to the other leg. When the princi­pal tried to leave, the twins both screamed.

Miss Ruth Calkins thinks of the Moody prize speaking contests as the outstanding events in her high- school days, and she speaks with pride of the prize won in one of the contests. She also feels that the training she received in preparation for the contests was of assistance to her in her later educational work. There is, however, a note of regret in her letter that she cannot start high-school days again and enjoy some of the advantages which loom ahead in the grand new building. Would we not all like to begin school days again? Yet the responsi­bility is great on the children of the village to produce results and ac­complishments commensurate with their advantages.

Observations of a graduate of the class of 1923 go back to earlier ex­periences in the gra,.des. Barbara Burch Stewart tells us that “Prin. Bartlett inaugurated the plan of hav­ing beginners take two years for the first grade. Alta Ellis took the younger ones. There was a large second grade and about seven were changed to third grade. Both Mr. Bartlett and Mr. Droman allowed a few of the brighter children to skip grades. It was the result of overcrowded conditions but was un­fortunate for those children for it led to confusion in their minds.

“The system of grading was changed by Mr. Droman. He inaug­urated the plan of having A and B sections of the grades. Certain chil­dren were selected in the spring and they studied during that summer and tried an examination. If success­ful, they were promoted to the B section. Since there was one teacher for each grade, each teacher had two sctions.One section recited while the other studied. Then these recited while the other section studied. Be­cause new work could not be started every half year, one child might have to stay in a grade a year and a half and another child might stay in a grade only one half year. It never worked out successfully, and the plan was changed back under Mr. Thomson.

“In my high-school days the as­sembly and study hall was the long room in the annex on the east side of the second floor. There were chapel exercises every morning. All the high-school faculty and the seventh and eighth grade teachers were on the stage, sitting in a semi­circle so that there might be room for all on the somewhat narrow plat­form. Prin. Thomson read from the Bible, and all joined in the Lord’s Prayer. There were songs from the Academy Song Book. Every day Mr. Thomson gave a short talk to the students, and he concluded his speech with: ‘May I have your

hearty cooperation?’

“Some of the other teachers also had favorite phrases. Mr. Trow­bridge was wont to say, when he found pupils in a slouching position in his study periods: ‘Stop sitting

on your necks.’ In one Latin class Miss Robinson, the teacher, was call­ing for the declension of ego. Dimon Benson began somewhat hesitantly: ‘Ego, mei, mihi, me, me.’ Miss Rob­inson urged him say it faster. He tried, but he got it so twisted that he couldn’t say it at all. Miss Rob­inson, quite excited, told him to stop grinning like a Cheshire cat. Evidently the teacher took the inci­dent more seriously than did Dimon, for the next day she apologized.” Mrs. Stewart says it was the only time she ever knew a teacher to apologize, and it made quite an im­pression on her.

A few short gleanings from “The Crimson and Blue” publications in the twenties reflect some of the school activities.

Easter 19 20 number: A different way of awarding the prizes is to be used this year for the Moody prize speaking contest in May. There will be first and second prizes for girls and also for boys instead of the five prizes for the five contestants rated highest.

Commencement 19 21 number

(editorial): “Our friends, the teach­ers, have sacrificed much of their spare time to help us along. They deserve much of the credit. Our Eng­lish teacher, Miss Case, has shown a very strong interest in our work. We wish to thank Miss Ronan and the pupils of the Design class for their cooperation in designing iso many attractive cuts and covers.”

Christmas 1923 number: Miss

Gladys Medbury, the history teacher was junior class adviser and was chairman of the “Stunts” committee for a Hallowe’en party October 29. (Miss Medbury is now teaching in Utica, N. Y.)

Christmas 19 24 number: Burch

Reed, editor-in-chief; Jane Bishop, assistant editor; Ruth McNitt, junior editor; Edna Rickard, Lloyd Arm­strong, Mae Burch, Helen Huntley, Beatrice Potter, Marie Eberhardt and Ralph Sanderson, associate edi­tors; Frank Conklin, business man­ager; Lyndon Evale, advertising manager; Ruby Mattison, circula­tion manager; Harry Reed, assistant circulation manager.

Commencement 19 25 number: The sceptre oration by Ferdinand Schneider took the place of the spade orations of earlier years.

Same number (From the “Grum­bler” written by Hazel Bearup and Burch Reed): “As for Mrs. Sharp, she doesn’t realize the signal honor that has been conferred on her of be­ing adviser to such a wonderful class. She still runs us just as much as she did when we were freshmen, but then, where would we be without her?” “Isn’t it terrible that we can’t think of anything to grumble about Miss Bush and she has been here four years, too?” “We wish that Mr. Lay would stop rubbing it in about our not having red blood. Wonder what color he thinks it is? How­ever, his ‘Rah! Rah!’ and ‘Get out there and fight’ have done a lot to get the slackers out for athletics. Our parties sure are dead without Mr. Lay.” “Miss Duffy must ap­prove this speech before I give it, so the least said about her the bet­ter. She certainly can put even a senior in his place. We hate to ad­mit it, but suppose we’ll have to, but the staff of ‘The Crimson and Blue’ wouldn’t have progressed very rapidly if it hadn’t been for her.”

The French Club 1932-’34 stands out in the memory of Frances Olm- stead. “It was started and directed by Miss Edith McChesney when she was the French teacher in Pulaski Academy. It was a social club and meetings were held in the library. Anyone in the French classes could belong. The meetings were con­ducted in French—interspersed with English.

“Basketball for girls was out­standing in this period. The girls won many consecutive games, per­haps forty or fifty.

“There were a number of parties during the year, a freshman recep­tion in September, a ‘Junior Prom’ at Christmas time and a senior dance at Commencement, besides a benefit dance sometime during the year.

“On the night we were graduated the Betts’ Opera Plouse burned. For­tunately our commencement exer­cises were being held in the academy auditorium, not in the opera house as had been the case at many com­mencements before our annex was built. Those on the platform could not see the glare of the fire and did not know the cause of the distur­bance. Just as the fire-siren sounded, Rev. Bridge arose to give the invoca­tion and said, ‘Let us pray’. Rev. Frank Halliday Ferris, who was the speaker for the evening, delivered his address under difficulties. People kept leaving the room. Finally Mrs. Sharp, who sat where she could find out what was going on, came forward and announced where the fire was. She added that there were already enough people at the scene and advised that the audi­ence stay in their places and that the exercises be continued. This was done.”

The idea of good sportmanship was stressed by Mr. Gladstone in the middle of the twenties. In the spring of 1926 Pulaski Academy re­ceived its charter in the National Fraternity of Good Sportsmanship, according to “The Crimson and Blue.” The following people were honored in 1926 with membership in this organization: Marion Tubbs, Elsie Ingersoll, Alice Barbouhr, Emily Ferguson, Clelia Crawford, Harold Morrison, Herbert Lundgren, Edward Bateman, Daison MacCallum, and Mervin Robbins.

The people chosen for the Good Sportsmanship Brotherhood in 1927 were: Marjorie Davis, Irene Spink, Adaline McKinley, Doris Jeanes, Orla Rood, William McChesney, Elmer Babcock, Kenneth Dight, John Schneider, and Ray Bush.

Those chosen in 1928 were: Doro­thy Beard, Mildred McChesney, Ade­laide Potter, Elnora Rood, Irene Rossman, Dudley Brownell, George Clemens, George Loomis and DeWitt Shepard.

The 1929 sportmanship awards were given to Doris Davis, Dorothy Davis, Elma Ingersoll, Dorothy Sanderson, Elsie Schneider, Robert Austin, Donald Brundage, Maurice Hurd, Willard Lloyd, and Robert Murray.

Other sportmanship awards will be found elsewhere.

Miss Marian. J. Wightman of the Class of 19 35, now a student in Cornell University, writes us the fol­lowing about the organization of “The Sportmanship Brotherhood.”

“Being elected to the Sportsman­ship Brotherhood was one of the greatest honors a student at Pulaski Academy could receive. It meant more than a recognition of good scholarship or of skill on the basket­ball court. The wearers of the Sportsmanship pins were chosen be­cause of their scholarship, interest in their work and school, and for being all around good sports.

“The method of selection was as follows: Each spring there was a joint meeting of the student council and Brotherhood members in school at the time. This committee made a list of the members of the junior and senior classes whom they thought worthy of election and submitted the list to the faculty. From this list, the faculty then selected about ten students to whom pins were pre­sented at assembly.

“One of the happiest memories I have of my high-school days is of the Sportsmanship convention which I attended in Syracuse during my post-graduate year. There I met many outstanding young people and Brotherhood leaders from all parts of New York State. It was indeed a proud and happy group of Pulaski Academy students, moreover, who accepted a silver loving cup in recognition of an essay on Sports­manship written by N. Earle Evans, Jr. of the class of 1935. I am sure that all who attended that conven­tion left with even more respect for the aim of the Brotherhood—to pro­mote better sportsmanship in our schools.

“It is my sincere wish that mem­bership in the Sportsmanship Broth­erhood will be maintained by the new Pulaski Central School and that its future students will have the opportunity which we had to belong to such a fine organization. Good sportsmanship is a valuable thing to cultivate, and I believe that an ac­tive desire to promote it through such an organization is of value not only to our high-school people but to the country as a whole whose citizens they will be.”

Mrs. Robert Smith (Louise

Mathewson) gives us many items of interest from her father’s recollec­tions and from her own student and teacher observations. “My father, Willis Mathewson, attended the Academy in earlier days when they had the boarding school. He remem­bered distinctly the smell of the bacon cooking during classes.

“In my student days in Pulaski (1919-1925) I came to school by train every day with twenty-five or thirty others from Fernwood and Mapleview, and about as many from

Richland. We arrived about seven thirty in the morning and had the long wait before school began. In the afternoon we were excused at three o’clock to take the train back. We had to bring lunches. In pleas­ant weather we ate in the grove near the river—there was no playground equipment then—or sat on the old railroad arch.

“The school arrangement has changed from time to time. When I was a senior in the school year

1924-25, the office was at the right of the entrance in front. The library was at the left of the stairway, back of the primary room—a long, nar­row room with only one window, dark and dingy. The book shelves reached nearly to the ceiling and stacks were erected through the mid­dle. It was not a reading room— there were no tables or chairs, but books could be drawn there at cer­tain times. The Moody library was not there, but in a room in the south­west corner of the building, off: the office. That was light and attrac­tive. The training class room was on the third floor in front. There was also a smaller room at the head of the stairs on the third floor where the training class students did prac­tice teaching. The history room was a long, narrow room on the second floor nearly straight ahead of the stairs as they turned to the right. As it was through this room that the opening was made into the annex, there was considerable noise from the construction at times. Toward the end of the year, when we could begin to use the gymnasium, we practiced for the senior play there. Shavings were still around the stage, which the boys liked to hang on their heads for curls.

“The annex was, of course, the outstanding thing. The library was moved into the front room of the annex, a beautiful, big, airy room with plenty of light. The gleam­ing white plaster with fine molding, the two fireplaces, one at each end, the fresh woodwork, new tables and chairs, were a joy to behold. The Moody library and furnishings were in the south end of the room. Back of the hall was the combination room—gymnasium and auditorium, which was put to almost constant use. The two large classrooms up­stairs were assigned for the use of the seventh and eighth grades.

“The following year the principal, Mr. Gladstone, gave up the front office for the use of the new kinder­garten department, and he took for the office the long, narrow room which had been the library. By proper electric lighting it was no longer the dark room which it was and with the door open for those with school problems, it became the center of school administration.

“Other changes were made in the next few years. Before I came back to the Academy to teach (in 19 32), the study hall on the second floor of the main building had been divided by a partition going east and west. This made two ‘home’ rooms instead of one. Two or three years before the building burned, the north room was divided again by a partition going north and south. This left the inside room so dark that indirect lighting was needed.

“The commercial department was added before the fall of 19 32, but the home economics department, ad­vocated by Mr. Gladstone, was not started until the fall of 19 37 because of lack of room. After the training class was discontinued, this room be­came available for other purposes and was used in 19 3 7 for the home economics department.

“Mr. Gladstone did much for the children and young people of the village by setting a worthy example in his personal conduct. He was a man of perfect poise and dignity. His personality helped to develop the best in those with whom he worked.”

“What happened while I was on the Board?” Mrs. C. I. Miller re­peated our query and went on to answer. “The addition to the school building, which was started in 19 24, was a much needed improvement. We couldn’t keep up with the de­mands for school facilities without it. Mr. Gladstone worked out the general plan to secure space for the most urgent expansion at a reason­able cost. James Farmer land­scaped the grounds for us at a very low cost. Yes, it was a good-looking piece of property, wasn’t it?

“Then there were all those prizes which Mr. Gladstone worked up. Any student with ability along any line had the chance to win honor and a cash prize. The prizes were a won­derful incentive.

“The value of g kindergarten was presented to our citizens by Mr. Gladstone. He felt that the child with kindergarten training had a better chance to ‘make good’ in the demands of school work, if he had this preparation. Th e department was started in 1925.

“With the opening of the gym­nasium there was a new impetus for athletics. A special teacher was added to the faculty in the fall of 1926 to direct the physical educa­tion of all pupils as well as the school games.

“Prize speaking had been a fea­ture of extra-curricular activities for some time, made possible by the generosity of Mrs. Harry Moody and carried out by her daughter, Mrs. Hugh Barclay, but the interscholas­tic contests began in this period in 1921. The winners in the Pulaski contest met those from Sandy Creek, Belleville, and Adams.

“At the present time you can find much school information in the hand­books which are published each year. The earlier student publica­tions had usually contained school data, but the later ones were largely devoted to student activities.”

“For the fifteen years that I was on the Board of Education from 1919 to 1934,” says Mrs. Herbert W. Damon, “there was remarkable unanimity in the Board. The mem­bers were all deeply interested in the school. A great deal of attention was given to the raising of money to finance the expense of building the annex built in 1924 and ’25.

“Mr. Irving R. Gladstone was the principal during most of this period, and the Board was kept in touch with his plans and aims in working out educational problems. He was very systematic. We could go to his office and find out anything we wanted at any minute. Mr. Glad­stone required a high type of teacher in character and in scholarship. He urged cooperation between teachers and pupils in student problems. He worked continually to raise the standard of scholarship of the pupils. Quarterly tests and quarterly class ratings were always given, and those who attained an average of 85 or over were placed on the honor roll, which was published. He endeavored to know what each pupil lacked, to keep track of the individual pupil and give him every chance to develop the best that was in him.

“In addition to the education of the classroom he felt that a broader education was needed by the young people of today, and he helped to promote extra-curricular activities. These included the school publica­tions, ‘The Crimson and Blue,’ which had been started while Mr. Thom­son was principal, and the ‘What- Not’ in charge of the English teacher—Miss Thelma Wood, when she was here. Another phase of this was the effort to give personality direction. Each home-room teacher spent certain hours teaching social and esthetic development. Student problems were worked out with the teacher in this period. Miss Brown, who taught English and elocution here at one time, met the pupils and showed the girls how to greet people and how to act in certain situations to develop ‘personality plus’. Miss Brown afterwards had a position with the R. H. Macy Co. in New York in the personnel department. An­other phase of this emphasis was ‘the publics’ given by the pupils. These were entertainments given by the various classes, the Latin class, the English class, etc., for school assemblies. The programs were under the supervision of the teach­ers. Public speaking was a part of the school training under the direc­tion of the elocution teacher. Mr. Gladstone wanted the pupils to be able to appear in public. Sometimes one class debated against another.

“Physical education received spec­ial attention. One of the purposes of the annex was to provide a place for gymnastic exercise both for the development of physical energy in growing boys and girls and for athletic games. Mr. Gladstone felt that such physical exercise would eliminate many of the disciplinary problems. A (special teacher was hired to take care of this work. Athletics thus received a new im­petus and basketball, especially, be­came a prominent school sport.”

Space fails us to give school reminiscences of the last few years. In time to come future historians will present the tales that live on in the minds of the present generation.

Extra-curricular activities now loom large. Here again time will re­veal which ones lead to a definite worth-while goal and which 6nes dis­tract and entertain for the moment only.

Even the curriculum itself will change as the public demands educa­tion which will produce the desired results. That will be the test—the results.

Many of Pulaski’s young people will, in the future, look back with longing to their days in Pulaski Academy. Outstanding among their impressions, we imagine, will be those connected with the band, as a symbol of the school spirit. To these past students will come a lone­some feeling that they are no longer a part of that throbbing energetic life of Pulaski Academy.

Yet youth marches on. As we watch from the side lines, nothing gives us a greater thrill than to see the present generation of Pulaski’s youth come marching up the street in their clean white uniforms, bright­ened with a touch of crimson and blue, with measured steps in time with the music of the instruments they are playing. Are they not marching forward toward a better Pulaski in the tomorrow?

 

ALUMNI PARTING SONG

Dear school days! tho’ you’re past, Fond memories crowd so fast ’Round me tonight.

My thoughts turn back to you,

As all these friends I view,

We’ll sing with praises new,

Of past days bright.

May our loved school be crowned, Her future work redound With truth and right Let us each year renew Our friendships, deep and true;

And now, good friends, adieu,

Good night, good night.

 

 

Classified Lists

Board of Education

(The first three names in each year were those last elected, to hold office three years. The next three had two more years to serve. The last three had one more year to serve.)

(A name in parenthesis indicates that the person filled the unexpired term of the person wTiose name pre­cedes. Those in brackets were not trustees but they held the office of either secretary or treasurer.)

1852-’53: Third class—office ex­piring in October 1855. William IL Lester, Anson R. Jones; Don A. King, Sec’y.; Second class—office ex­piring in October 1854. Anson Malthy, Samuel Woodruff, Charles IT. Cross. First class—office expiring in October 1853. George Gurley, Pres.; Newton M. Wardwell, Hiram Mur­dock.

1853-’54: George Gurley, Pres.;

  1. R. Amgell, Dewey C. Salisbury, Anson R. Jones, William H. Lester, (John T. McCarty after June 10, 1854), Don A. King, Sec’y.; Anson Maltby, Samuel Woodruff, Charles H. Cross.

1854-’55: Charles H. Gross, Sam­uel Woodruff, George T. Peckham; George Gurley, Pres.; Alonzo R. Angell, Dewey C. Salisbury, Anson R. Jones, John T. McCarty; Don A. King, Sec’y.

1855-’56: James A Clark, Sylvanu.s C. Huntington, Sr. (Josephus C. Hatch died, Gilbert A. Woods, elected by the Board March 12, 1 857.) Charles H. Cross, Sec’y.; Samuel Woodruff, George T. Peckham; George Gurley, Pres.; A. R. An gel 1, D. C. Salisbury.

1856-’57: Adonirum Fisher, John

  1. McCarty, Sidney M. Tucker, James
  2. Clark, S. C. Huntington, Sr., G.
  3. Woods; Gharles H. Cross, Sec’y.: George Gurley, Pres.; George T. Peckham.

1857A58: Beeman B. Brockway,

Pres.; James F. Davis; Don A. King, Sec’y.; Adonirum Fisher, John T. McCarty, Sidney M. Tucker, Gilbert

Woods, S. C. Huntington, Sr.; James A. Clark, Treas.

1858“’59: Gilbert Wood; James A. Clark, Treas,; Stephen C. Miller; Beeman B. Brockway, Pres.; James

  1. Davis; Don A. King, Sec’y; John T . McCarty, Adonirum Fisher, Sid­ney M. Tucker.

1859-’60: Adonirum Fisher, (Pres, after B. B. Brockway resigned), Sid­ney M. Tucker, Janies N. Betts, Gil­bert Wood; James A. Clark, Treas.;

  1. C. Miller; B. B. Brockway, moved from his district. Charles H. Cross after May 12, 186 0, Dr. F. S. Low; D. A. King, Sec’y.

1S60-’61: Don A. King, Sec’y.; Dr.

  1. S. Low; Charles H. Cross, Pres.; Sidney M. Tucker, Adonirum Fisher, James N. Betts, S. €. Miller, James A. Clark, Gilbert Wood.

18G1V62: James A. Clark, Treas.; Stephen C. Miller, Gilbert Wood; Charles H. Cross, Pres.; Dr. F. S. Low; Don A. King, Sec’y.; George

  1. Peckham, Adonirum, Fisher, James N. Betts.

1882-’63: James N. Betts, George T. Peckham, Adonirum Fisher, James A. Clark, Treas.; Stephen C. Miller, Gilbert Wood, Dr. F. S. Low; Charles H. Cross, Pres.; Don A. King, Sec’y.

1863-’64: Dean O. Knowlton,

Charles H. Cross; Lorenzo Ling, Sec’y.; James N. Betts, Pres.; George T. Peckham, Adonirum Fisher; James A. Clark, Treas.; S.

  1. Miller, Gilbert Wood.

1864-’65: James A. Clark, Treas.;

  1. A. Woods, Stephen C. Miller, Dean O. Knowlton, Charles IT. Cross; Lorenzo Ling, Sec’y.; James N. Betts, Pres.; George T. Peckham, Adonirum Fisher.

1865-’66: James N. Betts, Pres.; George T. Peckham, Benjamin F. Rhodes, (Rev. James Douglas after December 6, 1865); James A. Clark, Treas.; G-. A. Woods, Stephen C. Miller, Dean O. Knowlton, Charles IT. Cross; Lorenzo Ling, Sec’y.

1866-’67: Dr. F. S. Low, George W. Woods; Lorenzo Ling, Sec’y.;James N. Betts, Pres.; George T. Peckham, Rev. James Douglas; J.

  1. Clark, Treas,; G. A. Woods, S. C. Miller.

1867-’68: G. A. Woods; James A. Clark, Treas.; Stephen C. Miller, Dr.

  1. S. Low; George W. Woods, Pres.; Lorenzo Ling, Sec’y.; James N. Betts; George T. Peckham, (S. C. Huntington, Sr. appointed March 18, 18 68); Rev. James Douglas.

1868-’69: James N. Betts, Pres.; S. C. Huntington, Sr., Rev. James Douglas, G. A. Woods; James A. Clark, Treas.; Stephen C. Miller, Dr.

  1. S. Low, George W. Woods; Lorenzo Ling, Sec’y.

1869-’70: Dr. F. S. Low, George W. Woods; Lorenzo Ling, Sec’y., (H.

  1. Lyman after Sept. 15, 1870); James N. Betts, Pres., (A. R. Angell after June 18, 1870); S. C. Huntington, Sr., Rev. James Doug­las, (Pres, after Dr. Betts resigned) ;
  2. A. Woods; J. A. Clark, Treas.; S. C. Miller.

1870-’71: J. A. Clark, Treas.; Gilbert A. Woods, J. W. Fenton, Dr.

  1. S. Low, George W. Woods; H. H. Lyman, Sec’y., (Lorenzo Ling after March 18, 1871); A. R. Angell, S.
  2. Huntington, Sr.; Rev. James Douglas, Pres.

1871-’72: S. C. Huntington, Sr.; Rev. James Douglas, Pres.; Newton W. Thompson, Sec’y., (Benjamin Snow after March 25, 1872); J. A. Clark, Treas.; G. A. Woods, J. W. Fenton, Dr. F. S. Low, George W. Woods, Lorenzo Ling.

1872-’78: Dr. James N. Betts,

Chester R. Dickinson, George W. Woods, S. C. Huntington, Sr.; Rev. James Douglas, Pres.; Benjamin Snow, Sec’y.; J. A. Clark, Treas.;

  1. A. Woods, J. W. Fenton.

1873-’74: James A. Clark, Treas.; James Fenton, Gilbert Woods, Dr. James N. Betts, Chester R. Dickin­son, George W. Woods, S. C. Hunt­ington, Sr.; Rev. James Douglas, Pres.; Benjamin Snow, Sec’y.

1874-’75: S. C. Huntington, Sr., Don A. King; Benjamin Snow, Sec’y.; James A. Clark, Treas.; James Fenton, Gilbert Woods, Dr. James N. Betts, Pres.; Chester R. Dickinson, George W. Woods.

1875-’76: Dr. James N. Betts,

Sewell T. Gates, Edwin H. Minot, S.

  1. Huntington, Sr., D. A. King; Ben­jamin Snow, Sec’y.; James A. Clark, Treas.; James Fenton, Pres.; Gilbert Woods.

1870-’77: James W. Fenton, Pres.; James A. Clark, Treas.; Gil­bert A. Woods, Dr. James N. Betts, Sewell T. Gates, Edwin H. Minot, S.

  1. Huntington, Sr., D. A. King; Ben­jamin Snow, Sec’y.

1877-’78: S. C. Huntington, Sr.,

  1. A. King; Benjamin Snow, Sec’y.; J. W. Fenton, Pres.; J. A. Clark, Treas.; G. A. Woods, Dr. James N. Beets, Sewell T. Gates, Edwin H. Minot.

1878-’79: Alfred N. Beadle, John

  1. Box, William P. Outerson, S. C. Huntington, Sr., D. A. King; Benja­min Snow, Sec’y.; J. W. Fenton, Pres.; J. A. Clark, Treas.; G. A. Woods.

1879-’80: James W. Fenton,

Pres.; James A. Clark, Treas.; Seneca D. Moore, Alfred N. Beadle, John F. Box, William P. Outerson, S. C. Huntington, Sr., D. A. King; Benjamin Snow, Sec’y.

1880-’81: Andrew W. Dunn, Law-

son R. Muzzy, (Dr. E. F. Kelley after Sept. 19, 1881; Benjamin Snow,

Sec’y.; James W. Fenton, Pres.; James A. Clark, Treas.; Seneca D. Moore, A. N. Beadle, J. F. Box, W.

  1. Outerson.

1881-’82: A. N. Beadle, J. F. Box, Dwight C. Dodge, Andrew W. Dunn, Dr. E. F. Kelley; Benjamin Snow, Sec’y.; James W. Fenton, Pres.; James A. Clark, Treas.; Seneca D. Moore.

1882-’83:. James W. Fenton, Pres.; James A. Clark, Treas.; Seneca D. Moore, A. N. Beadle, John F. Box, Dwight C. Dodge, Andrew W. Dunn, Dr. E. F. Kelley; Benja­min Snow, Sec’y.

1883-’84: Dr. Edward F. Kelley, Andrew W. Dunn; Benjamin Snow, Sec’y.; James W. Fenton, Pres., (re­signed Aug, 25, 1884); L. D. Potter; J. A. Clark, Treas.; Seneca D. Moore, A. N. Beadle, John F. Box,

  1. C. Dodge, (John Hohman elected).

1884-’85: John F. Box, Pres.;

John W. Shea, Albert A. Maltby, Dr.

  1. F. Kelley, (John Hohman after Feb. 2, 1885); A. W. Dunn; Benja­min Snow, Sec’y.; Latham D. Potter,
  2. A. Clark, Treas., (L. J. Clark after Feb. 2, 1885); Seneca D. Moore.

1885-’86: T. S. Meacham, L. R. Muzzy, (M. L. Hollis after March 8, 18 86); A. F. Betts, John F. Box, John W. Shea, A. A. Maltby, (Sec’y. after Dec. 17, 1885); John Hohman; Andrew W. Dunn, Pres.; Benjamin Snow, Sec’y. until Dec. 17, 1885), (S’. D. Moore, after March 8.) [Louis J. Clark was elected treasurer at the organization meeting Sept. 3, 1885.]

1886- ’87: Andrew W. Dunn, Pres.; Charles B. Hibbard; Dr. J. N. Betts, Treas.; T. S. Meacham, M.

  1. Hollis, A. F. Betts, J. F. Box, J. W. Shea; A. A. Maltby, Sec’y.

1887-’88: D. A. King, Charles

Tollner, Sr.; A. A. Maltby, Sec’y.;

  1. W. Dunn, Charles B. Hibbard;

Dr. J. N. Betts, Pres.; T. S.

Meacham, M. L. Hollis, A. F. Betts.

1888»,89: M. L. Hollis; A* F.

Betts, Treas.; T. S. Meacham, D. A. King, Charles Tollner, Sr.; A. A. Maltby, Sec’y.; A. W. Dunn, Charles

  1. Hibbard; Dr. J. N. Betts, Pres.

1889-’90: D. C. Mahaffy, B. E.

Parkhurst, W. yH. Austin, M. L.

Hollis, A. F. Betts, T. S. Meacham, D. A. King; Charles Tollner, Sr., Pres.; A. A. Maltby.

1890-’911 O. Y. Davis, A. A.

Maltby; Charles Tollner, Sr., Pres.; W. H. Austin, D. C. Mahaffy, B. E. Parkhurst, M. L. Hollis, A. F. Betts, T. S. Meacham.

1891V92: M. L. Hollis, Dr. E. F. Kelley, L. J. Clark; Charles Tollner, Sr., Pres.; O. V. Davis, A. A. Maltby, W. H. Austin, D. C. Mahaffy, B. E. Parkhurst.

1892-’93: W. H. Austin, D. C.

Mahaffy, B. E. Parkhurst, M. L. Hollis, Dr. E. F. Kelley; L. J. Clark, Pres.; Charles Tollner, Sr.; O. Y. Davi^, Sec’y.; A. A. Maltby.

1893-’94: Charles Tollner, Sr.; O. V. Davis, Sec’y.; D. C. Dodge, W. H. Austin, D. C. Mahaffy, B. E. Park­hurst, M. L. Hollis, Dr. E. F. Kelley; L. J. Clark, Pres.

1894-95: A. F. Betts, T. S.

Meacham; M. L. Hollis, Pres.;

Charles Tollner, Sr., O. V. Davis, D.

  1. Dodge; W. H. Austin, Sec’y.; D.
  2. Mahaffy, B. E. Parkhurst.

1895-’96: W. H. Austin, Sec’y.; D.

  1. Mahaffy, N. B. Smith, A. F. Betts, T. S. Meacham; M. L. Hollis, Pres.; Charles Tollner, Sr., O. V. Davis,
  2. C. Dodge.

1896-’97: Charles Tollner, Sr.,

(E. D. Forman), S. R. Trumbull, D. C. Dodge; W. H. Austin, Sec’y.; D.

  1. Mahaffy, N. B. Smith, A. F. Betts, T. S. Meacham; M. L. Hollis, Pres.

!897-’98: M. L. Hollis, Pres.; John F. Box, George E. Parsons, E.

  1. Forman, S. R. Trumbull, D. C. Dodge; W. H. Austin, Sec’y.; D. C. Mahaffy, N. B. Smith.

1898-99: W. H. Austin, Sec’y.; D.

  1. Mahaffy, N. B. Smith, M. L. Hollis, Pres.; John F. Box died May 21, 1899, (S. C. Huntington, Jr.) ;

George E. Parsons, E. D. Forman, S. R. Trumbull, D. C. Dodge.

1899- ’00: E. D. Forman, S. R. Trumbull, D. C. Dodge; W. H. Aus­tin, Sec’y.; D. C. Mahaffy, Pres.; N.

  1. Smith, M. L. Hollis, S. C. Hunt­ington, Jr., George E. Parsons.

1900-’01: George W. Douglas, S.

  1. Huntington, Jr., (Sec’y. after Mr. Austin died); George E. Parsons, E.
  2. Forman, S. R. Trumbull, D. C. Dodge; W. H. Austin, Sec’y,, died Jan. 1901, (I. G. Hubbs); D. C. Mahaffy, Pres.; N. B. Smith.

1901-’02: D. C. Mahaffy, Pres.; N. B. Smith, I. G. Hubbs, George W. Douglas; S. C. Huntington, Jr., Sec’y.; George E. Parsons; E. D. Forman, S. R. Trumbull, D. C. Dodge.

1902-’03: E. D. Forman, S. R. Trumbull, D. C. Dodge; D. C. Ma­haffy, Pres.; N. B. Smith, Sec’y.; I.

  1. Hubbs, George W. Douglas, S. C. Huntington, Jr., (J. L. Hutchens elected in his place); George E. Par­sons.

1903-’04: Mrs. Alta M. Austin, J. N. Daly, Dr. J. L. More, D. C. Dodge,

  1. D. Forman, S. R. Trumbull; D. C. Mahaffy, Pres.; N. B. Smith, Sec’y.; I. G .Hubbs.

1904-’05: D. C. Mahaffy, Pres.; Charles K. Clark; N. B. Smith, Sec’y.; Mrs. Alta M. Austin, J. N, Daly, Dr. James L. More, S. R. Trum­bull, E. D. Forman, D. C. Dodge.

1905-’0(>: D. C. Dodge, S. R. Trumbull, Dr. C. E. Low, C. K. Clark; D. C. Mahaffy, Pres.; N. B. Smith, Sec’y.; Mrs. Alta M. Austin,

  1. N. Daly, Dr. James L. More._

190©-’07: IT. R. Franklin, C. Frank Woods, J. N. Daly, D. C. Dodge, S. R. Trumbull, Dr. C. E. Low, C. K. Clark; D. C. Mahaffy, Pres.; N. B. Smith, Sec’y.

1907-’08: D. C. Mahaffy, Pres.; Charles K. Clark, N. B. Smith, H. R. Franklin, C. Frank Woods, J. N. Daly, D. C. Dodge, S. R. Trumbull, W. J. Peach.

1908-’09: D. C. Dodge, Pres.; S.

  1. Trumbull, W. J. Peach, C. K. Clark, D. C. Mahaffy; N. B. Smith, Sec’y.; J. N. Daly, C. Frank Woods,
  2. R. Franklin.

1909“’10: J. N. Daly, Dr. C. E. Low, C. Frank Woods; D. C. Dodge, Pres.; S. R. Trumbull, W. J. Peach, Charles K. Clark, D. C. Mahaffy; N.

  1. Smith, Sec’y.

: D. C. Mahaffy, Hart­

well Douglas; F. G. Whitney, Clerk; J. N. Daly, Dr. C. E. Low, C. Frank Woods; D. C. Dodge, Pres.; S. R. Trumbull; W. J. Peach.

1911-H2: D. C. Dodge, Pres.; S.

  1. Trumbull, William J. Peach, Hart­well Douglas, D. C. Mahaffy; F. G. Whitney, Clerk; J. N. Daly, C. Frank Woods, Dr. C. E. Low.

1912-’US: Dr. C. E. Low, C. Frank Woods, John N. Daly; D. C. Dodge, Pres.; S. R. Trumbull, William J. Peach, Hartwell Douglas, D. C. Mahaffy; F. G. Whitney, Clerk.

1913-’14: Hartwell Douglas, R. C. Pirnie; F. G. Whitney, Clerk; C. Frank Woods, Dr. C. E. Low, John N. Daly; D. C. Dodge, Pres.; S. R. Trumbull, W. J. Peach.

1914-’15: W. J. Peach, Pres.; D.

  1. Dodge, S. R. Trumbull, Roscoe C. Pirnie, Hartwell Douglas; F. G. Whitney, Clerk; C. Frank Woods, John N. Daly, Dr. C. E. Low, (George H. White, after Sept. 21, 1914).

1915-16: F. J. Walton, J. P.

Benedict, J. D. Holmes, D. C. Dodge, W. J. Peach, S. R. Trumbull; Hart­well Douglas, Pres.; Roscoe C. Pir­nie, F. G. Whitney; O. B. Trow­bridge, Clerk; later D. C. Dodge.

191G-’17: Hartwell Douglas, Pres.; N. E. Woods, Dr. F. E. MacCallum,

  1. J. Walton, J. D. Holmes, J. P. Benedict; D. C. Dodge, Clerk; S. R. Trumbull, W. J. Peach.

1917- 18: D. Ward Howard, Clerk; Charles A. Jewell, W. J. Peach; Hartwell Douglas, Pres.; N.

  1. Woods, Dr. F. E. MacCallum, F. J. Walton, J. P. Benedict, J. D. Holmes, (W. H. Brown).

1918- H9: F. J. Walton, J. P. Benedict, W. IT. Brown, died 1918;

  1. W. Howard, Clerk; C. A. Jewell, W. J. Peach; Hartwell Douglas, Pres.; N. E. Woods, Dr. F. E. Mac­Callum, (E. H. Benson).

1919-’20: Hartwell Douglas,

Pres.; Mrs. H. W. Damon, E. H. Ben­son, F. J. Walton, J. P. Benedict, Mrs. C. I. Miller in place of W. IT. Brown; D. W. Howard, Clerk; C. A. Jewell, W. J. Peach.

1920-’21: W. J. Peach, C. A.

Jewell, D. W. Howard; Hartwell Douglas, Pres.; Mrs. H. W. Damon,

  1. H. Benson, F. J. Walton, J. P. Benedict, Mrs. C. I. Miller.

1921-22: Mrs. C. I. Miller, E.

  1. Hastings, Andrew Murray, W. J. Peach, C. A. Jewell, D. W. Howard; Hartwell Douglas, Pres.; Mrs. H. W. Damon, E. H. Benson.

1922-’23: Hartwell Douglas,

Pres.; Mrs. H. W. Damon, E. H. Benson, Mrs. C. I. Miller, E. M. Hast­ings, Andrew Murray, W. J. Peach,

  1. A. Jewell, D. W. Howard.

!923-’24: Charles A. Jewell, Ben­jamin Hutchins; D. W. Howard, Clerk; Hartwell Douglas, Pres.; Mrs.

  1. W. Damon, E. FI. Benson, Mrs.
  2. I. Miller, E. M. Hastings, Andrew Murray.

1924-’25: E. M. Hastings, Andrew

Murray, Mrs. C. I. Miller, C. A. Jewell, Benjamin Hutchins; D. Ward Howard, Clerk; Hartwell Douglas, Pres.; Mrs. FI. W. Damon, E. H.

Benson.

1925-’26: Tracy Burch, Mrs. H.

  1. Damon, E. H. Benson, E. M.

Hastings, Andrew Murray, Mrs. C. I. Miller; C. A. Jewell. Pres.; Benja­min Hutchins; D. Ward Howard,

Clerk.

1926-’27: C. A. Jewell, Pres.;

Benjamin Hutchins; D. Ward How­ard, Clerk; Tracy Burch, Mrs. H. W. Damon, E. H. Benson, E. M. Hast­ings, Andrew Murray, Mrs. C. I. Miller.

1927-’28: E. ~M. Hastings, Andrew Murray, Mrs. C. I. Miller, Benjamin Hutchins; C. A. Jewell, Pres.; D. Ward Howard, Clerk; Tracy Burch, Mrs. H. W. Damon, E. H. Benson.

1928«’29: Tracy Burch, E. H.

Benson, Mrs. H. W. Damon, E. M. Hastings, Andrew Murray, Mrs. C.

  1. Miller, Benjamin Hutchins; C. A. Jewell, Pres.; D. W. Howard, re­signed as trustee Aug. 13, 1928 but was elected secretary or clerk, (F. A. Clark elected trustee in his place).

1929-’30: C. A. Jewell, Pres.; B.

  1. Hutchins, F. A. Clark, Tracy Burch, Mrs. H. W. Damon, Earl H. Benson, E. M. Hastings, Andrew Murray, Mrs. C. I. Miller; [D. Ward Howard, Clerk.]

1930-’31: E. M. Hastings, And­

rew Murray, Mrs. C. I. Miller, B. F. Hutchins, (James Manwaring), C.

  1. Jewell, Pres.; F. A. Clark, E. H. Benson, Mrs. W. II. Damon, Tracy Burch, (Paul K. Foster, after July
  2. 1931); [Irving R. Gladstone, Sec’y.]

1931-’32: Mrs. H. W. Damon, E.

  1. Benson, Paul K. Foster, E. M. Hastings, Andrew Murray, Mrs. C. I. Miller; C. A. Jewell, Pres.; F. A. Clark, James Manwaring, [Irving R. Gladstone, Sec’y.]

1932-’33: James Manwaring, Dr.

  1. J. Loomis, Stanley Brown, Mrs. H. W. Damon, E. H. Benson, Paul K. Foster; E. M. Hastings, Pres.; Mrs. C. I. Miller, Andrew Murray, [Irving R. Gladstone, Sec’y.]

1933-’34: E. M. Hastings, Pres., George Merriam, Tracy D. Burch; W. Stanley Brown, Dr. H. J. Loomis, James L. Manwaring, E. H. Benson, Mrs. H. W. Damon, Paul K. Foster; [E. H. Dillenbeck, Treas.; Irving R. Gladstone, Sec’y.]

1934-’35: Dr. A. B. Thompson; O.

  1. Trowbridge, Sec’y.; Lynn W. Smith, Pres.; George Merriam, Tracy Burch, Walter Miller, W. Stanley Brown, Dr. H. J. Loomis, James Manwaring.

1935-’36: Luman J. Truesdell, Dr.

  1. J. Loomis, W. Stanley Brown; Lynn “W. Smith, Pres.; Dr. A. B.

Thompson; O. B. Trowbridge, Clerk; Tracy Burch, George Merriam, Wal­ter Miller.

1936-37: George Merriam, Wal­ter Miller, Tracy D. Burch, Luman

  1. Truesdell, Dr. H. J. Loomis, W. Stanley Brown, Dr. A. B. Thompson; O. B. Trowbridge, Clerk; Lynn W. Smith, Pres.

1937- ’38: O. B . Trowbridge, Clerk; Dim on Benson, Leslie Price; George Merriam, Walter Miller; Tracy D. Burch, Pres.; Luman J. Truesdell, Dr. H. J. Loomis, W. Stan­ley Brown.

1938-’39: Five year terms—James

  1. Barclay, term expires 1943; Tracy D. Burch, Pres., term expires 19 42; Louis Geer, term expires 1941; Stan­ley Brown, term expires 1940; Guy Frary, term expires 1939.

Faculties from 1853-1939

The following lists are approxi­mately correct, but there have been instances, particularly in the early years, where the records do not state definitely the names of the instruc­tors or the exate dates of their serv­ice. Therefore all names that have been found have been included, al­though it is not possible to know always whether they were at the Academy or at the graded schools. The length of service wTas sometimes but one eleven week term, thus there would be several names for one posi­tion during a year. Senior students also often acted as part time instruc­tors.

The word preceptress in boardingschool days meant a woman teacher who kept order and supervised the morals and behavior of the girl stu­dents. In later days a preceptress came to mean the woman teacher who was considered the senior in rank and her particular duty, besides assisting the principal, was to look after the welfare of the young women students, a sort of “Dean of Girls.”

1853-1854: Stephen G. Miller, A. M., Principal; Miss W. Bright, As­sistant; Asa French, Miss Tucker, Miss Smith, O. A. Forbes; Emma Snow, Mill St. School; James W.

Fenton, South Side School, later at Academy.

1854-1855: Stephen C. Miller,

Principal; Frances Baker, Precep­tress; Homer T. Fowler, George L. Bragdon; Emma Snow, Mill Street School.

1855-1856: Stephen C. Miller,

Principal; Frances Baker, Precep­tress; Homer T. Fowler, George L. Bragdon; Miss Seber, Senior; Miss Lyman, Miss Doan; Emma Snow, Academy, Primary; Miss Fitch, Pri­mary, Brick School; Miss Kate Clark, Junior, Brick School.

1856-1857: Stephen C. Miller (left Dec. ’56), Principal; Henry L. Lamb, Principal; Abba T. Green, Precep­tress; George L. Bragdon, Miss Kate Clark; Miss Emma Snow, Senior Dept.; Catherine E. Shippen, Miss Sanborn.

1857-1858: Henry L. Lamb, Prin­cipal; Abba T. Green, Preceptress; George L. Bragdon; Alfred D. Tubbs, Miss Sanborn, Primary; Miss Snow, Senior Dept., Academy (left spring ’58).

1858-1859: Henry L. Lamb, Prin­

cipal (through spring of ’59); Miss J. Decker, Preceptress; Emma N. Beebe, Preceptress; Miss Sanborn, Senior Dept., Primary School; Louise Watson, Primary Dept., Primary School; George L. Bragdon; Jules T. Billard; O. A. Forbes, Primary Dept.; Nellie Cornell, Music; Robert Webb, Assistant. Lecturers: Rev. S. J.

Decker, J. N. Betts, M. D., F. S. Lowe, M. D., Rev. L. W. Chaney, J. B. Watson.

1859-1860: R. B. Van Patten,

Principal (till Jan. ’60); J. II. Hoose, Principal; Angeline Cham­pion, Preceptress; O. A. Forbes, Pri­mary; Nellie Cornell, Music; Jules T. Billard; Wallace H. Warriner, Music; E. M. Desbrow, Preceptress; H. H. Butterworth; O. A. Forbes, Senior Dept. Primary School; Kate

  1. Clark, Junior Dept. Primary School, Brick School, followed by Miss P. Root; Miss Sanborn, Pri­mary; Miss S. A. Gillespie, South Side School; D. D. Owen.

1860-1861: Pulaski E. Smith,

Principal; Lizzie P. Bush, Precep­tress; Orville A. Forbes; Emma Beebe, Preceptress; Miss M. J. Ingersol, Primary School, Brick School House; Miss P. Root, Junior Dept. Primary School, Brick School House; Miss S. A. Gillespie, South Side; Miss Sanborn, D. D. Owen, H. H. Butterworth.

1861- 1862: Pulaski E. Smith, Principal; Emma N. Beebe, Precep­tress; Lizzie P. Bush, Miss Sanborn, Orville A. Forbes, Miss M. J. Ingersol, H. H. Butterworth; Alfred D. Tubbs, Senior Dept, (resigned April ’62) ; Miss Wood, Daniel D. Owen.

1862-1863: Pulaski Smith, Princi­pal; Miss Lizzie P. Bush, Preceptress; Helen M. Rice (later Mrs. H. H. Butterworth) ; H. C. Smith, Primary Dept, in Academy; Daniel D. Owen, Miss Burt, Miss Clark; Miss Sarah Whitney, lower, room, Brick School, Church and Lake Streets; Miss Gates, upper room, Brick School; Miss M. J. Ingersol.

1863-1864: H. H. Butterworth,

Principal all ’63 (died Oct. 1864); Helen M. Rice, Preceptress (became Mrs. Butterworth); Daniel D. Owen (enlisted Civil War, September 1, 18 64); H. C. Smith, Brick School, east side, followed by Silas A. Sey­mour; Emily Bennett, lower school in Brick School, east side; John W. Quimby, Mr. Mattison.

1864-1865: H. H. Butterworth

died Oct. 18 64; Rev. M. B. Benton, Principal; Mrs. II. H. Butterworth, Preceptress; Charles Rice, Assistant; Emily Bennett, Nehemiah White, Benj. J. Cole, J. W. Quimby.

1865-1866: Rev. James W. Grant, Principal; J. W. Quimby, Commer­cial; Daniel D. Owen, Principal (re­signed July ’66); Mrs. H. H. Butter­worth, Preceptress; N. B. Smith; Miss Tinker, lower school, Brick School; Emily Bennett, upper school, Brick School; Miss Salisbury.

1866-1867: Nathan B. Smith,

Principal; Kate J. Brown, Precep­tress; Judah II. Matteson, Mathe­matics; Eunice Dean, Music; Mr. Foster; Eloise Watson, Painting, Drawing, Pastel; Loretta Wilcox, Primary, Academy; Miss Tinker, 3rd and 4th readers, North Side; Emily Bennett, lower school, Brick School; Miss Salisbury.

1867-1868: 115 pupils Oct. 1867; Nathan B. Smith, Principal; Kate J.

Brown, Preceptress; Eloise Watson, Painting, Drawing; Eunice Dean, fol­lowed by Mary Wood, Music; Judah H. Mattison; Loretta Wilcox, Pri­mary in Academy and Calisthenics; Mary Root, First Grade School, 1st and 2nd readers, Church and Bridge Streets; Miss Margaret Lloyd re­placed Miss Tinker, 3rd and 4th readers; Miss Tyler, south side, prob­ably replaced Miss Salisbury.

1868-1869: Rev. H. W. Congdon, Principal; S. M. Coon, Assistant; E. W. Blanchard, B. J. Cole; Louise Bigelow, Preceptress; Flora A. Pot­ter, Preceptress; Mary E. Duncan, Academy Primary; Loretta Wilcox, Academy Primary and Calisthenics; H. A. Behn, Singing School; Mattie Angell, Music; Miss Dunbar, Pri­mary, South Side, also Mary Root; Margaret Lloyd, 3rd and 4th readers, Church and Bridge Streets.

1869-1870: Sebastian Duffy, Prin­cipal; Mrs. S. Duffy, Preceptress; E. W. Blanchard; Flora A. Potter, Pre­ceptress; Margaret Lloyd, “High” School, Church and Bridge; Mary Root, south side, Nancy Wooster, W. Steele, B. F. Miller, I. Richardson, Miss Mary L. Forbes, Madge Thomas.

1870-1871: Sebastian Duffy, A. M., Principal; B. F. Miller, I. Richard­son; Mrs. S. Duffy, Preceptress; Nancy Wooster, Miss M. Angell, Mary Root, south side. October 1870— teachers in two lower grades on north side and teacher on south side to receive $90 each for next term.

1871-1872: Sebastian Duffy, A. M., Principal; Mrs. S. Duffy, Preceptress;

  1. G. Gurley, Nellie Brewster, Miss Martin, Mrs. Mattison, Frank Lowe, Lydia Clothier, south side, followed by Rose Chase; Ettie P. Frary, fol­lowed by Lora E. Watson; W. Steele, R. L. Leyser; Miss M. Lyman, Pri­mary Dept.; Miss Duncan.

1872-1873: Sebastian Duffy, A. M., Principal; Mrs. S. Duffy, Preceptress; Ettie P. Frary, Merton Bennett, Miss M. Lyman, A. W. Archibald, Miss White; Lora E. Watson, followed by Miss Salina A. Webb; Rose L. Chase, south side.

1873-1874: Sebastian Duffy, A. M., Principal; Mrs. S. Duffy, Preceptress; Miss M. Lyman, Mrs. Ettie Frary

Champney, followed by Adele Jones; Rose L. Chase followed by Clara H. Woodbury, south side; Nancy Wooster.

1874-1875: Sebastian Duffy, A. M., Principal; Mrs. S. Duffy, Preceptress; Silas Seymour, advanced department at school, Church and Bridge; James Hoyt, H. W. Hunt; Miss. M. Lyman, followed by Carrie Hinman; Adele Jones, north side; Salina Webb, north side; Clara Woodbury, south side; John E. Salisbury followed Silas Seymour, 4 departments in north side school.

1875-1876: Sebastian Duffy, Prin­cipal; Mrs. S. Duffy, Preceptress; James Hoyt; Nellie Clark, followed Carrie Hinman, John E. Salisbury, north side, followed by Charles B. King; Salina Webb; Adele Jones; Clara Woodbury, south side, followed by Flora Salisbury.

1876-1877: Sebastian Duffy, Prin­cipal; Mrs. S. Duffy, Preceptress; S.

  1. Huntington; F. Gilman; Mrs. E. Calkins followed by Benj. Wallace; Mary Curry; Mrs. T. T. Morgan, south side; Nellie Clark.

1877-1878: Sebastian Duffy, Prin­cipal; Mrs. S. Duffy, Preceptress; Mrs. Abba Harmon, Benjamin Wal­lace, Minnie Parker, Jennie Foster, Carrie Rhodes, Mrs. Morgan, south side.

1878-1879: Sebastian Duffy, Prin­cipal; Mrs. S. Duffy, Preceptress;

Mrs. R. D. Morgan, followed by

Helen Tisdale, south side; Ella Brown, Room No. 4, Primary Depart­ment; G. William Betts; Minnie Parker, Room 2, 24 seats; Salina Webb, graded school.

1879-1880: Sebastian Duffy, Prin­cipal in Dec. 1879, subleased Acad­emy to Prof. E. M. Wheeler, of Syra­cuse; Mrs. S. Duffy, Preceptress;

Helen Tisdale, south side; Carrie

Hinman, Minnie Parker, Ella Brown, O. H. Gurley, first dept, of graded school; Salina Webb, graded school.

1880-1881: E. M. Wheeler, Prin­cipal; Ida Gilbert, Preceptress; Mary Lewis, Commercial Dept.; Miss Burns, Hattie Seager, Blanche DeMaine; Kate Woods, south side, followed by Miss Frankie Moore, followed by Kate Farmer; Minnie Parker; Salina Webb, graded school; Ella Brown, 3rd department; Stella Holmes, Pri­mary department; O. II. Gurley, 1st department, graded school, followed by Henry M. Douglass, then by Jes­sie P. Becker.

1881-1882: E. M. Wheeler, Prin­cipal; Ida Bartlett, Preceptress; Mrs. Gertrude Townsend Skeei, Miss M. Huntington; Mary A. Lewis, Com­mercial department; Stella Holmes, followed by Ella Brown; Laura Aird, 3rd department, graded school; O. Ii. Gurley followed by J. B. Brigham, 1st department, graded school; 3alina Webb, graded school; Kate Farmer, south side.

1882-1883: E. M. Wheeler, Prin­cipal; Ida Bartlett, Preceptress; Mrs.

  1. T. Skeei, Miss M. Huntington, W.
  2. Haggerty, Miss Kendall; O. IT. Gurley, Teacher and Principal, graded school; Salina Webb, fol­lowed by Jessie F. Becker, graded school; Laura V. Aird, 3rd and 4th, public school (graded) school; Ella
  3. Brown, primary, graded school; Lilly Deusenberry, 1st and 2nd, grades public school; Kate Farmer.

1883-1884: E. M. Wheeler, Prin­cipal; Emma Gray, Preceptress; Lulu Pinkham, Preceptress; Eliza­beth Nichols, Emma M. Foot, Mettelil Huntington, Mary A. Porte; O. IT. Gurley, Principal and Teacher, graded school; Ida H. Wood, pri­mary, public school; Laura V. Aird, Nellie F. Martin, Jessie F. Becker; Kate J. Farmer, south side.

18S4-1S85: E. M. Wheeler, Prin­cipal; Miss E. A. Nichols, Precep­tress; Emma M. Foote, Miss R. M. Gilbert, Miss 1VI. Huntington, Miss J.

  1. Stevens, Prof. F. A. Curtis, Grace Wood; O. H. Gurley, Principal, graded school; Anna L. Towsley, jun­ior department; Helen M. Tanner, intermediate; Carrie S. Leonard, pri­mary; Frankie Moore, south side; Kate Farmer.

1885-1886: John M. Moore, Prin­cipal; Mrs. Mary D. Moore, Miss P.

  1. Halleck, Preceptress; Miss Ruth M. Gilbert, Bruce M. Watson, Henry A. Brown.; O. IT. Gurley, Principal, graded school; Anna L. Towsley, junior department; Carrie S. Leon­ard, primary department; Miss M. Barrett, Lillie Deusenberry, Frankie Moore, south side.

1886-1887: John M. Moore, Prin­cipal; Mrs. Mary D. Moore, Miss R.

  1. Gilbert, Henry A. Brown, Miss P. S. Halleck, Mr. B. M. Watson, O. H. Gurley, Principal graded school; Julia D. Wood, junior department; Carrie S. Leonard; Anna L. Towsley, Lillie Deusenberry, south side.

1887-1888: Henry A. Brown, Prin­cipal; Miss R. M. Gilbert, Precep­tress; Minnie Burrill, Loretta E. Douglas, Reed Brown, O. H. Gurley, Principal, graded school; Carrie S. Leonard, Gertrude Dunn, Grace Becker, Jennie E. Wiley, Miss L. G. Deusenbery, south side.

1888-1889: Jesse B. Ellsworth,

Principal; Miss R. M. Gilbert, Miss Grace Sisson, Miss Grace King, Carl Hartman, S. H. Lyman, Principal, graded school; Jennie E. Wiley, Nettie E. Clark, Lucy Pulver, Ida McChesney, Lillie G. Deusenberry, south side, Cora E. Nelson.

1889-1890: Wm. C. Gorman, Prin­cipal; Mrs. Ida T. Gorman, Precep­tress; Grace L. Packard, Daisy Blaisdell, Mrs. McDonald, music; S. IT. Lyman, Principal, graded school; Cora E. Nelson, Jennie E. Wiley, Gertrude Dunn, Lillie G. Deusenberry, Carrie Harmon, Lucy Pulver.

1890-1891: W. C. Gorman, Prin­cipal; Mrs. Ida T. Gorman, Precep­tress; Katherine M. Green, Latin and Mathematics; Alice G. Cruttenden, Greek and Higher English; Carrie C. Hoff, drawing; S. R. Shear, Principal, graded school; Gertrude Dunn, south side; Cynthia Beadle, Miss Fitzgerald resigned, followed by Cynthia Severance; Mrs. R. E. Thompson.

1891-1892: W. C. Gorman, Prin­cipal; Minnie Walker, Preceptress; Alice Walker, Daisy Blaisdell, Grace L. Packard, S. R. Shear, Principal graded school; Mrs. R. E. Thomp­son, Cynthia Beadle, Sophia Mattison, south side; Gertrude Dunn, Church St.

1892-1893: Union Free School and Academy, S. R. Shear, Principal and Training Class; Minnie Walker, Preceptress, Latin, Greek, Drawing; Alice Walker, Higher English; Frances King, Natural and Political Science; Bessie Perry, Senior Dept. 6th, 7th, 8th; Frances Richardson, Junior Dept. 4, 5; Sophia Mattison,

Intermediate Dept., 2d, 3rd; Caroline Marcy, First Primary.

1800-1894: S. R. Shear, Principal and training class; Minnie Walker, Preceptress, Latin, Greek, Drawing; Alice Walker, Mathematics and Literature; Frances King, Natural Science and History; Harriet Hollis, Higher English, German; Bessie Perry, Frances Richardson, Sophia Mattison, Caroline O. Marcy.

1894-1895: S. R. Shear, Principal and Training Class; S. Frances King, Preceptress; Harriet Hollis, Eva L. Miller, L. Grace Henderson, Mary Isham, Grace Ellingwood Rich, Frances Richardson, Sophia Matti­son, Caroline Marcy.

1895-1896: S. R. Shear, Principal and Training Class; S. Frances King, Preceptress; Plarriet Hollis, Eva L. Miller, L. Grace Henderson, Grace Ellingwood Rich, Art, Pre-Academic; Frances C. Richardson, Senior Dept, and Assistant Training Class; Mina Loomis, M. Sophia Mattison, Caro­line O. Marcy.

1896-1897: S. R. Shear, Principal and Training Class; E. A. Bridgham, Vice Principal; S. Frances King, Preceptress; Harriet S. Hollis; L. Grace Henderson, Belle M. Kirk, Drawing and Manual Training; Frances Richardson, Ella M. Rich, Frances L. Driscoll, M. Sophia Matti­son, Caroline O. Marcy.

1897-1898: George M. Davison,

Principal and Training Class; S. Frances King, Preceptress; Elmer

  1. Bridgham, Vice Principal; L. Grace Henderson, Harriet S. Hollis, Frances Richardson, Pre-Academic and Assisted Training Class; Ella M. Rich, Frances Driscoll, Mina Loomis, M. Sophia Mattison, Zillah A. Rice, Lucy S. Ward, Drawing.

1898-1899: Charles Melville Bean, Principal; S. Frances King, Precep­tress ; Elmer E. Bridgham, Vice Principal; L. Grace Henderson, Har­riet S. Hollis, Frances E. Richard­son, Frances L. Driscoll, Mina F. Loomis, M. Sophia Mattison, Zillah A. Rice, Ellen Beauchamp, Drawing.

1899-1900: Charles M. Bean,

Claude W. Klock, L. Grace Hender­son, Harriet S. Hollis, Frances E. Richardson, Lena M. Chapman, Marion E. Wright, Anna C. Wil­liams, Mina F. Loomis, M. Sophia Mattison, Zillah A. Rice, Ellen Beauchamp.

1900-1901: Charles M. Bean, Prin­cipal; Claude W. Klock, Vice Prin­cipal; L. Grace Henderson, Precep­tress; Harriet S. Hollis, Marion E. Wright, Frances E. Richardson, Ellen Beauchamp, Anna C. Williams, Anna M. Lacy, Rose C. Fenton, Zillaii A. Rice.

1901-1902: Charles M. Bean,

Principal; Leslie N. Broughton, Vice Principal; L. Grace Henderson, Pre­ceptress; Frances C. Richardson, Assistant Training Class; Marion E. Wright, Annabel A. Hulburd, Ellen Beauchamp, Anna C. Williams, Anna M. Lacy, Rose C. Fenton, Zillah A. Rice.

1902-1903: Charles M. Bean,

Principal; Leslie N. Broughton, L. Grace Henderson, Carrie J. Eaton, L. Grace Snyder, Training Class; Mar­ion E. Wright, Ellen Beauchamp; Anna C. Williams, Anna M. Lacy, Rose C. Fenton, Zillah A. Rice.

1903-1904: Charles M. Bean, Prin­cipal; Harry S. Simmons, L. Grace Snyder, Training Class; L. Grace Henderson, Carrie J. Eaton, Jessie

  1. Worden, Ellen Beauchamp, Anna C. Williams, Anna M. Lacy, Rose C. Fenton, Ella G, Petrie.

1904-1905: Charles M. Bean, Prin­cipal, Harry S. Simmons, Maude M. Tucker, Helen Frances Douglas, Training Class; Anna M. Coburn, Carrie J. Eaton, W. Grace Smith, Florence M. Doolittle, Elizabeth C. Jones, Eva A. Wright, Ella G. Petrie.

1905-1906: Charles M. Bean,

Principal; O. M. Ruland, Vice Prin­cipal; Anna M. Coburn, Maude M. Tucker, Mabel Martin, Training Class; Florence M. Doolittle, W. Grace Smith, Isabelle C. Robertson, Senior; Elizabeth C. Jones, Junior; Eva A. Wright, Intermediate; Ella

  1. Petrie, Primary.

1906-1907: Charles M. Bean,

Principal; Harry M. Garvey, Vic© Principal; Bessie M. Rhines, Helen

  1. Bentley, Florence M. Doolittle, Mable Martin, Training Class; W. Grace Smith, Isabelle Robertson, Nellie M. Fitch, E. Frances Mahaffy, Marguerita Hinman, Ella G. Petrie.

1907-1908: Charles M. Bean, Prin­cipal; R. Mackie Hogarth, Vice Principal; Mabel Martin, Training Class; Bessie Rhines, Pauline Long, Helen E. Bentley, May I. Woods, Ada Hfrldebrandt, Grace Smith, Helen W. Crocker, Nellie Fitch, E. Frances Mahaffy, Jessie E. Warner, Marguerita Hinman.

1908-1909: Claude N. Brown,

Principal; W. S. Smith, Vice Prin­cipal; May I. Woods, Helen E. Bent­ley, Bertha E. Kinney, Anna M. Kjerner, Ada Hildebrandt, Edith R. Tollerton, Training Class; Ella W. Potter, Rena A. Naylor, Helen W. Crocker, Marguerita Hinman, E. Frances Mahaffy.

1909-1910: George M. Plaight,

Sept, to Jan. ’10, and Gregory G. Andrews, Jan.-June ’10; Harry Bratt, Vice Principal; Mary V. Kee­nan, May I. Woods, Edna J. Smith, Training Class; Vera Prigoff, Edna R. Andrews, Ella M. Potter, Rena A. Naylor, Nellie Fitch, Kathryn Riker,

  1. Frances Mahaffy, Marguerita Hinman.

1910-1911: Gregory G. Andrews, Principal; May I. Woods, Vice Prin­cipal; Bessie M. Rhines, Preceptress; Edna J. Smith, Training Class; Jannat S. H. Latham, Kathie Mallory, Katherine Eleanor Cooper, Madge

  1. Ball, Ella W. Potter, Rena A. Naylor, Nellie M. Fitch, Jessie A. Fitch, Kathryn Riker, Mary C. Walsh.

1911-1912: Richard A. Bartlett, Principal; Jannat S. H. Latham, Preceptress; William Thompson, Annie F. Morrison, Elizabeth E. Tucker, Alice E. Heal, Lillian Fran­cis, Training Class; Ella Potter, Rena Naylor, Gladys Alvord, Nellie

  1. Fitch, Jessie Fitch, Florence Hart, 2nd; Mary C. Walsh, 1st.

1912-1918: Richard A. Bartlett, Principal; Jannat S. H. Latham, Preceptress; Elizabeth E. Tucker, Annie F. Morrison, Mary R. Clark, Edith Ray Tollerton, Training Class; Mollie C. Gilbert, Ella M. Potter, Evelyn Scheutzow, Winifred Davis, Rena Naylor, Jessie A. Fitch, Flor­ence A. Harte, Margaret Bidinger, Alta Ellis, Miss Damm.

1913-1914: Richard A. Bartlett, Principal; Jannat S. H. Latham,

Preceptress; Mary R. Clark, O. Bert Trowbridge, Grace E. Stokes, (Mollie C. Gilbert), Mildred Murphy, Flor­ence Farmer, Training Class; Rena A. Naylor, Evelyn Scheutzow, Wini­fred Davis, Miss Wilson, Jessie A. Fitch, Margaret Bidinger, Florence A. Harte, Alta V. Ellis.

1914-1915: Richard A. Bartlett,

Principal, resigned Nov. 15, 1914; W. S. Droman, Principal; O. B. Trowbridge, Vice Principal; Ina Knollin, Preceptress; Lura Mack, T. Hilda Gerber, Mary R. Clark, Flor­ence Farmer, Training Class; Rena Naylor, Evelyn Scheutzow, Ora Bent­ley, Ruth Scheutzow, Jessie Fitch, Edith Stewart, Margaret Bidinger, Florence Harte, Marguerite Sullivan.

1915-1916: W. S. Droman, Prin­cipal; O. B. Trowbridge, Vice Prin­cipal; Lura Mack, Katherine A. Richards, Edith Resseguie, Florence Robinson, Mary C. Van Gordon, Training Class, resigned Nov. 1; Alta V. Ellis, Training Class; Grace Allen, Evelyn Scheutzow, Jessie M. Lane, Ruth Scheutzow, Marguerite Hunt, Margaret Bidinger, Florence A. Harte, Marguerite Sullivan.

1910-1917: W. S. Droman, Prin­cipal; O. B. Trowbridge, Vice Prin­cipal; Lura Mack Sharp, Katherine A. Richards, Margaret Field, Marian Fisher, Alta V. Ellis, Training Class; Grace Allen, Evelyn Scheutzow, Jessie M. Lane, Ruth Scheutzow, Leah Towse, Florence Judge, Flor­ence A. Harte, Marguerite Sullivan.

1917-1918: Wm. Thomson, Super­vising Principal; O. B. Trowbridge, Vice Principal; Katherine A. Rich­ards, Lura Mack Sharp, Margaret Field, Marian Fisher, Alta V. Ellis, Training Class; Ida A. Scriber, Evelyn Scheutzow, Jessie M. Lane, Mae Sherwood, Nellie B. West, D. Ann Closen, Florence A. Harte, Mar­guerite Sullivan.

1913-1919: William Thomson,

Supervising Principal; O. B. Trow­bridge, Ina B. Knollin, Fern Robin­son, Lura Mack Sharp, Laura Rutan, Alta V. Ellis, Training Class; Ida A. Scriber, Evelyn S. Trowbridge, Mae Sherwood, Nellie West, Jessie M. Lane, Dorothy Ellis, Florence Harte,

  1. Ann Closen.

1919-1920: William Thomson,

Supervising Principal; Arthur W. Plough, ‘Agriculture; Olive jFink, Ina Knollin, Lura Mack Sharp, Fern Robinson, Mary Ronan, Frances Car­penter, Training Class; Eva Ingersol, Vivian Murray, Mae Sherwood, Ruth Hall, Dorothy Ellis, Laura Gaylord, Florence Ilarte, Grace Brown.

1920-1921: William Thomson,

Supervising Principal; Arthur W. Plough, Fern Robinson, Lura M. Sharp, Leora Case, Gladys Medbury, Mary Ronan, Nora Regall, (Physical Training and Dramatics); no train­ing class; Dorothy Bellinger, Vivian Murray, Mae Sherwodd, Florence Grant, Dorothy Ellis, Cecile Reese Woods, Florence A. Harte, Grace Brown.

1921-1922: William Thomson,

Supervising Principal; Glenn Blan­chard, Lura M. Sharp, Dorothy M. Bush, Gladys Medbury, Leora Case, Mary Ronan, Ora Lambert, no train­ing class, Dorothy Bellinger, Vivian Murray, Mae Sherwood, Harriet Bowen, Cecile R. Woods, Mary Weeden, Florence A. Harte, Flor­ence Jones.

1922-1923: Irving R. Gladstone, Supervising Principal; Glenn Blan­chard, Lura M. Sharp, Dorothy Bush, Ora Lambert, Gladys Medbury, J. Rattner, Leora Case, Mary Ronan, no training class, Mae Sherwood, Vivian Murray, Dorothy Bellinger, Harriet Bowen, Cecile R. Woods, Mary Weeden, Florence A. Harte, Florence Jones.

1923-1924: Irving R. Gladstone, Supervising Principal; Glenn Blanchard, Mildred Rockwood, Dorothy M. Bush, Lura M. Sharp, Gladys Medbury, Mary Duffy, Olive Jakway, Mary Ronan, Alta E. Rowell, Training Class; Mae Sher­wood, Vivian Murray, Cecelia Hale, Harriette C. Bowen, Cecile R. Woods, Mary Weeden, Florence Harte, Florence Jones.

1924-1925: Irving R. Gladstone, Supervising Principal; Stewart Lay, Lura M. Sharp, Mildred Rockwood, Mary E. Duffy, Olive Jakway, Doro­thy M. Bush, Lenora Mallette, Olive C. Richards, Alta E. Rowell, Train­ing Class; Mae Sherwood, Grace

Prouty, Cecelia Hale, Harriet Bo­wen, Cecile R. Woods, Mary Weeden, Florence Harte, Florence Jones.

1925-1926: Irving R. Gladstone, Supervising Principal; Stewart Lay, Lura M. Sharp, Mildred Rockwood, Olive C. Richards, Lenora Mallette, Irene Pettis, Sarah Ford, Alta E. Rowell, Training Class; Mae Sher­wood, Grace Prouty, Cecelia Hale, Hazel Reece, Cecile R. Woods, Mary Weeden Lacy, Florence A. Harte, Florence Jones, Sarah Butter worth, Kindergarten.

1926-1927: Irving R. Gladstone, Supervising Principal; Stewart Lay, Lura M. Sharp, Mary B. Engelbert, Olive C. Richards, Charlotta E. Wil­liams, Leonora Mallette, Sarah Ford, Irene Pettis, Alma Whalen, Alta E. Rowell, Training Class; Martha Ingersol, Grace Prouty, Cecelia Hale, Hazel Reece, Cecile R. Woods, Mary W. Lacy, Florence A. Harte, Flor­ence Jones, Barbara Trowbridge, Kindergarten.

1927-1928: Irving R. Gladstone, Supervising Principal; Stewart Lay, Lura M. Sharp, Sarah R. Ford, Irene Pettis, Charlotta E. Williams, Mary

  1. Engelbert, J. Donald Youmans, Margaret E. Daniels, Rhoda G. How­ard, Loie Silsby, Alma Whalen, Alta
  2. Rowell, Training Class; Martha Ingersoll, Grace Prouty, Cecelia Hale, Hazel Reece, Cecile R. Woods, Mary W. Lacy, Florence A. Harte, Florence Jones Sanderson, Barbara Trowbridge, Kindergarten.

1928-1929: Irving R. Gladstone, Supervising Principal; Stewart W. Lay, Lura M. Sharp, Isabel C. Wait, Edith McChesney, Charlotta E. Wil­liams, Mary B. Engelbert, J. Donald Youmans, Margaret E. Daniels, Rhoda G. Howard, Loie Silsby, H. R. Youker, Alta E. Rowell, Training Class; Martha Ingersol Gardner, Grace Prouty, Cecelia Hale, Hazel Reece, Cecile R. Woods, Mary W. Lacy, Florence A. Harte, Florence J. Sanderson, Barbara Trowbridge.

1929-1930: Irving R. Gladstone, Supervising Principal; J. Donald Youmans, Bernard C. Snyder, Thelma Wood, Lura M. Sharp, Edith McChesney, Audra Williams Hadley, Mary Englebert, Margaret E. Daniels, Helen A. Angier, Rhoda G.

Howard, Loie C. Silsby, Harold R. Youker, Alta E. Rowell, Training Class, Martha I. Gardner, Grace Prouty, Ethel H. Moon, Hazel Reece, Cecile R. Woods, Mary W. Lacy, Florence A. Harte, Marjorie Need­ham, Barbara Trowbridge.

1930-1931: Irving R. Gladstone, Supervising Principal; J. Donald Youmans, Bernard C. Snyder, Harold R. Youker, Lura M. Sharp, Thelma Wood, Edith McChesney, Audra W. Hadley, Mary Engelbert, Margaret

  1. Daniels, Helen A. Angier, Miriam Harmon, Dorothy McLean, Alta E. Rowell, Training Class; Martha I. Gardner, Grace Prouty, Ethel H. Moon, Grace Clark, Cecile R. Woods, Mary W. Lacy, Florence A. Harte, Marjorie Needham, Florence J. Sanderson.

1931-1932: Irving R. Gladstone, Supervising Principal; J. Donald Youmans, Bernard C. Snyder, Max­well T. Kendall, Clara Brown, Edith McChesney, Dorothy Wallace, Mary Engelbert, Lura M. Sharp, Y. Eileen Muncy, Helen A. Angier, Dorothy McLean, Miriam Harmon, Harold R. Youker, Edwin L. Freeman, parttime band instructor; Alta E. Rowell, Training Class; Martha I. Gardner, Grace Prouty, Ethel H. Moon, Grace Clark, Mildred A. Lewis, Mary W. Lacy, Florence A. Harte, Florence Butler, Florence J. Sanderson.

1932-1933: Irving R. Gladstone, Supervising Principal; J. Donald Youmans, Bernard C. Snyder, Max­well T. Kendall, Clara Brown, Lura M. Sharp, Helen Pfund, Louise Mathewson, Mary Engelbert, Emily Gorman, V. Eileen Muncy, Helen A. Angier, Miriam Harmon, Dorothy McLean, Harold Youker, Alta E. Rowell, Martha I. Gardner, Grace Prouty, Ethel H. Moon, Grace Clark, Mildred A. Lewis, Doris Davis, Flor­ence A. Harte, Florence Butler, Flor­ence J. Sanderson, E. L. Freeman, part time band instructor.

1933-1934: Irving R. Gladstone, Supervising Principal; J. Donald Youmans, Bernard C. Snyder, Max­well T. Kendall, Harold R. Youker, Thelma Wood, Lura M. Sharp, Helen Pfund, Louise Mathewson, Mary Engelbert, Emily Gorman, V. Eileen

Muncy, Helen Angier, Dorothy Mc­Lean, Miriam Harmon, Alta E. Rowell, Martha I. Gardner, Grace Prouty, Grace Clark, Margaret L. Hart, Doris Davis, Florence A. Harte, Florence Butler, Lola G. Richards, Elvin L. Freeman, part time band instructor.

1934-1935: Irving R. Gladstone, Supervising Principal; B. Clark Sny­der, Maxwell T. Kendall, Francis H. VanOrman, Louis L. D. Nieolello, Lura M. Sharp, Thelma Wood, Emily Gorman, Margaret V. Perkins, Louise

  1. Mathewson, Helen A. Angier, Anne R. Warner, Miriam, Wood, Alta E. Rowell, Martha I. Gardner, Grace Prouty, Merrill Colton, Grace Clark, Margaret L. Hart, Doris Davis, Flor­ence A. Hart, Esther Hinman, Lola
  2. Richards, Helene K. Rose, R. N.; Rosemary V. Murtha, Dental Hygien­ist; Elvin L. Freeman, part time band instructor.

1935-1936: Irving R. Gladstone,

Principal; B. Clark Snyder, Vice Principal; Maxwell T. Kendall, Thelma Wood, Mary E. Kiplinger, Margaret V. Perkins, Louise B. Mathewson, Helen A. Angier, Fran­cis H. VanOrman, Lura M. Sharp, Anne R. Warner, Miriam Wood, Dorothy McLean, Miriam Harmon, Harold R. Youker, Alta E. Rowell, Merrill Colton, Martha I. Gardner, Elvin L. Freeman, part time band in­structor; Grace Prouty, Natalie Sanders, Grace Clark, Margaret L. Hart, Doris Davis, Florence A. Harte, Esther Hinman, Lola G. Richards, Helene K. Rose, R. N.; Rosemary Murtha, Dental Hygienist.

1936-1937: Chester W. Hovey,

Principal; B. Clark Snyder, Vice Principal; Merrill Colton, William Melchior, Harold Youker, A. B. Chapman, Maxwell T. Kendall, Fran­cis H. VanOrman, Myrna Walrath, Lola Richards, Natalie Sanders, Ruth E. Tripp, Louise Mathewson, Miriam Wood, Martha I. Gardner, Helene K. Rose, R. N.; Ruth Schnepel, Mar­garet Perkins,Margaret Hart Berche, Dorothy McLean, Grace Prouty, Lura M. Sharp, Alta E. Rowell, Florence A. Harte, Esther Hinman, Grace Clark, Thelma Wood, Elvin Free­man, Rosemary Murtha.

 

1937-1938: Chester W. Hovey,

Principal; B. Clark Snyder, Vice Principal; A. B. Chapman, Harold Youker, F. H. VanOrman, died De­cember 19 38; William Melchior; Maxwell T. Kendall, Ruth Schnepel, Alta E. Rowell, Lura M. Sharp, Miriam Wood, Martha I. Gardner, Mary T. McShane, Myrna Walrath, Dorothy McLean Swarts, Charles Hayes, Louise Mathewson, Elvin Freeman, Grace Prouty, Jean Blockseidge, Margaret Perkins Spencer, Doris Davis Woodard, Esther Hinman, Florence A. Harte, Natalie Sanders Hoxie, Helene K. Rose, R.

N.; Anna Parker Boyd, Lola Rich­ards, Rosemary Murtha, Dental Hygienist.

1938-1939: Chester W. Hovey,

Principal; B. Clark Snyder, Vice

Principal; Arthur B. Chapman, Harold Youker, F. H. VanOrman, died December 1938; William Ca­hill, William Melchoir, Maxwell T. Kendall, Carol Dalton, Alta E. Rowell, Lura M. Sharp, Miriam Wood, Martha I. Gardner, Mary T. McShane, Myrna Walrath, Dorothy M. Swarts, Charles Hays, Grace Prouty, Glenna Lombard, Elvin Freeman, part time band instructor; Winifred Thomas, Irene Spink, Esther Morenus, Alice Mattison, (sec. to office); Naida Barss, Mar­garet P. Spencer, Doris D. Woodard, Esther Ilinman, Florence A. Harte, Natalie S. Hoxie, Lola Richards, Mil­dred V. Riebel, R. N.; Rosemary Murtha, Merle E. Eaton, Balsey Disk, former Dist. No. 1; Izora White, Hinman Dist., former Dist. No. 2; Mildred L. McNett, Hicks Dist., former Dist. No. 3; Gertrude E. White, Meacham Dist., former Dist. 4; Melba VanArsdale, Farmer Dist., former Dist. No. 8; Margaret E. Lounsbury, Chamberlin Dist., former Dist. No. 9; Frances I. Nichols, White Dist., former Dist. No. 11; Mary L. White, Spring Brook Dist., former Dist. No. 13; Doris G. Webb, Fernwood Dist., former Dist. No. 17; Cora S. Carl, Mo wry Dist., former Dist. No. 18; Arvilla B. Wilder, Agric. Hall Dist., former Dist. No. 3; Pearl H.

Gorman, Centerville Dist., former Albion Dist. No. 9.

Alumni List from 1938-39 Handbook
^Deceased

.1868: * William H. Austin, * Sew­ard A. Dodge, ^Webster Ingersol, ♦Ella King (Mrs. Wright), *Alta Maltby (Mrs. W. H. Austin).

1871: *Estella Calkins (Mrs. Vir­gil), * Sarah Ellen Hadley, *Metilil Huntington, *S. C. Huntington, Jr.,

  1. B. King.

1878: * Flora Salisbury (Mrs.

James Morris), * Frank Salisbury,

*Welsey Watson.

1874: *M. L. Bennett, *G. W.

Douglas, *L. R. Huffstater, *G. W. Rudd.

1875: *Dr. H. C. Sutton.

1876: Wm. H. Bennett, Emma

Fenton (Mrs. Hoyt), * Lieut. F. E. Sutton.

1877: Ella A. Brown, (Mrs. Fred Gillespie Box), * Walter S. Perry,

  1. E. Wing.

1878: Jessie Maltby (Mrs. Green), Dr. W. W. Jamieson, *Dr. M. L. Greenfield.

1879: Stella Holmes (Mrs. A. F. Aird).

1880: * Jessie Becker (Mrs. Gam­ble), * Frank Moore (Mrs. Milliken).

1881: 555 Ella Campbell (Mrs.

Waterman), * Carrie Cross, Mary

David (Mrs. Parker), Blanche
DeMaine (Mrs. MacDonald), *Dr. T.

  1. Lawler, * William R. Moulther, *0. M. Reilly.

1882: Minnie Alexander (Mrs. D. J. Hoctor), * Grace Becker (Mrs. W. R. Moulther), * Henry D. Greenfield, Carrie A. Lane, *Delos Richardson, ♦Dr. Wilbur C. Warner, *D. H. Wil­liams.

1883: *Rev. Wesley W. Cole, C.

Edward Jones, * John A. Mattison,

* Newton W. Thompson, * Monroe

Warner, *May Wheeler (Mrs. Gould).

1884: Ida Hadley, M. Sophia Mat­tison, Amelia A. Morris, Zillah A. Rice (Mrs. Thompson), Minnie J. Seamans (Mrs. Peck).

1885: * Frank F. Baird, *Dr.

Frank A. Box, H. H. Cole, Thomas

  1. Hayden, Sarah Frances King (Mrs. W. E. Griffis), Elizabeth M. Lloyd (Mrs. Newton Thompson), *Pro£. E. Coit Morris, George B. Potter.

1886: Herbert Calkins, *Chas.

Fleming, Blanche Hadley (Mrs. Strong), Fannie C. Stevens, Freder­ick G. Whitney.

1887: *Norman S. Bentley, Char­lotte A. Cross, (Mrs. Harry Godsmark), Claribel Calkins, Lizzie D. Emmons (Mrs. Phillips), * John B. Etherage, Cora T. Eaton (Mrs. Miller), L. J. Farmer, *J. H. Har­mon, *F. E. Jones, *M. Eveljm McNitt, Nellie Louise Page (Mrs. G.

  1. Treat), Frances C. Richardson (Mrs. G. W. Betts), Warren W. Warner, *Beile Thompson.

1888: *John O. Bentley, *Flor-

ence M. Betts (Mrs. W. B. Baker), *Kate L. Brown (Mrs. Thornton), Nannie Dixson (Mrs. I. G. Hubbs), *L. Grace Henderson (Mrs. F. G. Whitney), Harriet S. Hollis (Mrs. Herbert Damon), I. G. Hubbs, *D. Howard Naylor, Clarritta Seamans (Mrs. Parker).

1889: Mott H. Bentley, Franklin W. Christman, ^Katherine F. Mullin, *John W. Parkhurst, Grace E. Clark (Mrs. R. C. Beal), Harriet M. Doane, * George H. Post, Bertha F. Stowell.

1890: Thomas W. Dixson, Ada S. Harbottle (Mrs. Taylor), Anna Ilarbottle (Mrs. ^. M. Whettic).

1892: *Carrie Wilson (Mrs. L. J Farmer), Fred Jones, Helen Peckham, *George Powers, ^William Daly, Charles E. Low, * Frank Bur­dick, Clinton Bean.

1893: *Carrie J. Eaton, *Grace L. Fenton, Grace L. Snyder (Mrs. Arrowsmith), *A. R. Warner, ^Charles Barker, C. A. Potter.

1894: Carrie Hibbard (Mrs. Pot­ter), Cora Box, Mattie Bean (Mrs. Newton Ehle), Eva Lighthall (Mrs. E. H. Minot Jr.), Helen Gillispie (Mrs. L. H. Baldwin), A. Lloyd Warner, * Nellie Burr (Mrs. David Rogers), Albert Wright, Jesse Bur­dick, * Benjamin Hutchins, Will Dunn, Janet Kelley (Mrs. Will For­sythe), Lewis Wood, Charles Hutchins, *T h o m a s Henderson, *James Daly.

1895: Frank Low, Kathleen Clark (Mrs. F. P. Betts), * Charles Box, Fred Clark, Marion Champney (Mrs. Jesse Hadley), Etta Pride (Mrs. John Salladin), Marne Ransome (Mrs.

Wyman), Frank Gallagher, John Salladin, Ella Wylie, Will Hall, *David Mahaffy, George Peckham, * Maude Dunwick (Mrs. Geo. Montondo), Maude Perry (Mrs. W. IJ. Weeden), *Rev. Harrison Wright, Bessie Shear (Mrs. C. Wood), Min­nie Orton (Mrs. Chas. H. Hutchins), Blanche Bishop (Mrs. M. J. Terry).

1896: Delia Stewart (Mrs. Bush),

  1. W. Caldwell, *Jessie Farmer, Robert McNamara, Carrie B. Allen (Mrs. Chas. Wightman), Jessie M. Holmes (Mrs. F. A. Clarkj, * Julia Maltby (Mrs. J. Hamilton), Arthur Clark, Marion Wright (Mrs. Monroe Warner), Edward Sprague, *Ella Rich (Mrs. Hodge), Lena Cox (Mrs. E. J. Ferrin), Claude Jones, Cor­nelia Hibbard (Mrs. Herman Van Horn), Henry Wilson, Elbert Jackson, Octavia Hilton (Mrs. Frank Miner), Esther Gillispie (Mrs. W. F. Daggett), Lou Graham (Mrs. Arthur Peach), Anna Cobb (Mrs. Foster Thomas).

1897: Arthur Fitzgerald, * Claude Frary, ^Robert H. Joslyn, Charles Lane, Arthur Naylor, *Ward Stevens, Kate Witherill (Mrs. Geo. Earl).

1898: Albert Emmons, Robert

Wright.

1899: R. Elmer Curtiss, William Griffith, Harold L. Hall, F. A. Hallenbeck, Susie B. Hilton (Mrs. Dean Williams), Libbie A. Jones (Mrs. Eugene Bunee), Dora E. Naylor (Mrs. W. L. Combs), Edith W. Nye (Mrs. Chas. Lane), * Cornell N. Smith, Walter D. Smith, Amy D. Tis­dale, Gertrude Whipple (Mrs. E. R. Burdick), Laura B. Wilson (Mrs. R. Nutting).

1900: Marne E. Warner, Margaret Green, Flora Greenless (Mrs. L. C. Wright), John Snow, Jay Stowell, Claude Stowell, Edward J. Doneburg, Eleanor J. Green (Mrs. Charles Lawn), Orimel Olmstead, Florence Andrews (Mrs. Harte), Clarence Par­sons.

1901: Ruth Austin (Mrs. F. Earle McChesney), Carl D. Huntington, Edith Tollerton, Joseph T. Wright, Mayme Meegan, James Petrie, Bessie Laney (Mrs. H. Bonner), Cora Rob­bins (Mrs. G. Harmon), Roy W. Hardie, Bessie Ewart (Mrs. Wiatrowski), Bessie L. Davis (Mrs. George Peckham), Timothy Buckley.

 

1902: Helen Bentley, E. Harry

Bennett, John F. Box, James D. Creagan, Edward L. Davis, Roy Ellis, Walter A. Erskine, Rena M. Gardenier (Mrs. McRae), William M. Green, Mabel Hardie (Mrs. E. L. Davis), Marguerita H in man (Mrs. E. Butts), Beulah Helme (Mrs. Earl Smith), George D. Hull, Ethelbert Hungerford, Herman W. Kandt, John Kandt,

* Albert Mattison, * Carlton Moore, *Rena A. Naylor (Mrs. Sherman Holmes), * John C. Peach, Myron

Pruyne, * Andrew G. Simons, *Eva L. Steward (Mrs. Mandigo), May I. Woods (Mrs. G. G. Andrews), Jessie Warner (Mrs. F. Stevens).

1903: * Fannie Buckley, *Mary G. Ehle, * Jessie A. Fitch (Mrs. Jay More), Nellie M. Fitch, Edna L. Fox (Mrs. F. Lane), Florence Plarmon (Mrs. W. Lund), Lester Hilton, Mary D. Joslyn, i±arold Lane, Har­riet Lane, Grace Look (Mrs. Leon Stratton), Lois Tyler (Mrs. Arthur Shaw), George Utley, Edwin Warner, Helen Woods (Mrs. Edwin Warner), *Earl Smith.

1904: Albert Bean, William K.

Bentley, Hazel Calkins (Mrs. Roy Hardie), Lulu B. Erskine, *Hazel N. Fox, Eleanor Kennedy, Frances Mahaffy (Mrs. T. A. Campbell), *Eva Rickard (Mrs. G. D. Lewis), Ida Scriber, *Floy B. Sherman (Mrs. C. J. Palms), Mae E. Moody.

1905: Emily L. Clark, Horace

Hutchens, * George Mattison, Lena Salisbury (Mrs. E. L. Dight), L. Ray Trumbull, * Katherine J. Wright, Kathryne E. Riker (Mrs. Joe Pitts), Willis J. Corwin, Lillian B. MeChesney (Mrs. William Thomson).

1900: James M. Daly, Hugh F. Whitney, Geo. W. Huntington, Ruth

  1. Patterson (Mrs. R. Geer), Kath­erine A. Richards, Edna C. Rose (Mrs. Oscar Lindborg), Zaide Foster (Mrs. Frederick Metcalf).

1907: John Davis, Edna Hill (Mrs. F. Whitney), George Bennett, Harry E. Hinman, C. Flossie Macy (Mrs. Clayton Clark), Benjamin H. Frary, Irene Noyes (Mrs. Ernest McAllister), Elida A. Petrie (Mrs. Seth Valore), Anna G. Dodge (Mrs. Edward Wilson), Alice G. Look (Mrs. Irving Edwards), Olive Averill (Mrs.

  1. E. Hulse), Blanche A. Corwin

(Mrs, Guy Wilcox), *Ora E. Bentley

(Mrs. Rodney LuGar), Jessie Lane.

1908: Russell M. Bean, Winifred

  1. Daly (Mrs. Rex Wilsey), Francis Daly, Samuel Clark, Roy Stone, Mary Edwards (Mrs. Jay Ellis), Olive Richards, Arnold H. Fox, Alta Ellis (Mrs. B. Rowell), Anna Clark (Mrs. Walter Fey), Winifred Davis (Mrs. William K. Bentley), Frances Meegan, Dorothy Felt.

1909: Don Hutchens, Ray Halsey,

* Clayton Parker, Helen Mahaffy (Mrs. Louis Gilbert), Charles John­son, Ruth Seamans (Mrs. Martin Graney), Althea Orton (Mrs. Edward Orton, Jr.), Fred Goodsell, Tracy Wilder, Alice Clark (Mrs. T. A. Campbell).

1910: Purley Bentley, *Lois Cas­tor (Mrs. Leon Manwarren), Leon Hutt, Florence Farrington (Mrs. Hutt), Frances Despard, Elton Smith, Charles J. Daly, Leon W. Hamblin, Charles R. Ellis, Sarah Rickard (Mrs. D. G. Campbell), *Zillah Fradenburgh (Mrs. Chas. R. Ellis).

1911: Jay Ellis, Grace R. Adams (Mrs. Tanner), * Frank S. Reming­ton, Genevieve Johnston (Mrs. Beeman ), Arlo Hutt, Grace M. Utley (Mrs. Howard Allan), Vivian Mur­ray.

1912: Leata Bradley (Mrs. Glen Moore), * Margaret Brown, Norma

Elkin (Mrs. D. Clement), Arthur Gleason, Kathleen Halleran (Mrs. Martin Fuller), Frank VanVoorhis, Chester A. Wheeler, Gertrude Jones, Irene Edwards (Mrs. Robert Woods), Gladys E. Marvin (Mrs. J. B. Fox).

1913: Leta G. Bonney (Mrs.

Thomas Ballantyne), Franklin Ed­wards, Dayton Hamblin, Hazel Ham­blin (Mrs. Vern Hamilton), Bessie M. Lilley (Mrs. Ben. Frary), Leon Saunders, Dorothy Sperling (Mrs. Chester Wheeler), Nellie B. West (Mrs. Arthur DeLong), Robert Wood­ruff.

1914: Stanley Brown, Claude Bon­ner, Inez Burdick (Mrs. John All­port) , Ruth Ellis (Mrs. Ackley), Leta Howe (Mrs. C. Nelson), Agnes Hughes, Eva Ingersoll (Mrs. Stanley Brown), Florence Jones (Mrs. Roy Sanderson), Cora Ledyard (Mrs. Ray­mond Miner), Belva Lindo (Mrs.

 

Frank Chamberlain), Gladys McNitt (Mrs. Morvylle Charles), Gladys Murray (Mrs. Ralph Lowry), Sylvia Pratt (Mrs. Herbert Kinney), Sadie Reynolds (Mrs. Clarence Peters), Cassie Scriber, Glenn Upton, Cornel­ius Campbell, William Hewlett.

1915: Orla Bennett, Golda Bradley, Earl Clemens, John Daly, Alice Dowl­ing, Helen Eckel (Mrs. Ray Flagg), Ethel Farrington (Mrs. Earl Dexter), Glenn Fradenburgh, Cyrus Hamblin, May Huested, Mildred LaCelle (Mrs. Robert Edwards), Robert Lodge, Robert McNitt, Nelson Pirnie, Miles Pirnie, Florence Taylor (Mrs. D. O. Whitney), Susie Warren (Mrs. Har­mon E. Clemons), Doris Wheeler (Mrs. Leland Blount).

1910: Albert H. Betts, Marion F. Wills (Mrs. W. J. Hinkle), ♦Earl J. VanHoosen, Ethel F. Ingersoll (Mrs. Charles Champ), Clarence J. Gor­man, Harry LaVere, Blanche E. Trumbull (Mrs. Vernon Canfield), Herbert W. Jeanes, Cecile E. Weed (Mrs. Ernest Ottman), Esther A. Hinman, Grace E. Brown (Mrs. Harold Burhans), Mabel C. Nichols (Mrs. Ward Hilton), Perdita E. Flagg (Mrs. Will Soule), Flossie M. Morgan (Mrs. A. Maurice Gates), Glenn W. Potter, Edith M. Church, Bernice “Wadsworth (Mrs. Broadwell), Flor­ence M. Maxwell (Mrs. George Craig).

1917: Francis W. Man waring,

Cecile M. Reece (Mrs. Chauncey Woods), James A. Pirnie, Harold

  1. Brigham, Charles E. Storrs, Ruth
  2. Woods (Mrs. J. J. More), Mildred Larabee (Mrs. O. Weeden), Douglas H. MacNeil, Nerine Briglin (Mrs. Burton Coffin), Mildred Rupracht, Ernest Grant, * Martha II. McNitt, Oscar Bowen, Cecil Maynard, Alvin Brown, Hattie Patterson (Mrs. George Lord), Maurice Gates, Mary Weeden (Mrs. Sherman Lacy), Nellie Bristol (Mrs. O. House), Thos. Edwards, Leon Lilley.

1918: Tracy Killam, Edna Hol­combe, Mildred Adams (Mrs. Owen McNett), Agnes Dodge, Helen Wright (Mrs. Walter Ludwig), Dorothy Dodge (Mrs. L. F. Clark), Jessie Frye (Mrs. John Trumbull), Ina Durst (Mrs. R. Lockwood), Kather­ine Brown (Mrs. Harold Baker), Leah Creagan, Pauline Little (Mrs.

Howard Nelson), Arlene Phelps, Bar­bara Haggerty (Mrs. Herman Gif­ford), Frances Christman (Mrs. Jos­eph Lyons), Mildred Upton, Helen Whitney (Mrs. J. Mattison), Lela White (Mrs. Mowrey), ‘”Harry How­ard, Earl Flagg, Erwin Holmes, James Farmer.

1919: Harold Meegan, Vera

Brooks (Mrs. Harold Parkhurst), Mae Stark (Mrs. B. Hunt), ^Robert Brigham, Lucile Plummer (Mrs. Thorp), Charles Manwaring, * Fran­cis Parkhurst, Beth Ewart (Mrs. Wil­lard Crane), Burkett Curtiss, Lillian Field (Mrs. E. H. Carle), Frances Price (Mrs. Lewis Zufelt), Clifford Montondo, Horace Farrington, Ed­ward Lowry, Adelle Smith (Mrs. Ted Somers), Bradford Crocker, Rena Wa,ndcheer, Florence Grant (Mrs. Frank Hilliker), Irene Burns (Mrs. Roy Murray).

1920: Merrit A. Gates, Elsie

McChesney (Mrs. Gerald B. Brown­ell), Alexander Pirnie, Donald H. Clark, Marie Parkhurst (Mrs. Ken­neth Wills), Mildred Perfield (Mrs. Howard Bonney), Irma MacCallnm (Mrs. Chas. Holcomb), Marion Spink (Mrs. L. B. Peck), Gladys Fox (Mrs. Walter Benedict), Xira Wightman (Mrs. Geo. Woods), Mattie Hubbs (Mrs. I. R. Stuart), Clarence Law­ler, Francelia Huested, Dorothy J. Potter (Mrs. Rex Crandall), Grace Prouty, Florence Cooper (Mrs. Ran­kin Seadding), Edna Westcott (Mrs. H. E. Carpenter), Redvers Grimshaw, Gertie Wood (Mrs. DeSchambeau), Mary O’Mara, George Brown­ell, Helen Farmer (Mrs. J. R. Petrie), Llewelyn Frost, Lillian Grant, Dorothea Hewlett (Mrs. S. Durgee), Myrtle Wills, Edna Whipple (Mrs. Allen Halsey).

1921: Mildred Peach (Mrs. G. M. Berry), Gladys Sperling, Mildred Mayne (Mrs. Harry Cooper), Edith McChesney, ^Evelyn Richardson, Mildred Sprague (Mrs. E. A. Reamore), Fannie Plorton (Mrs. John Lawson), Grace Harnden (Mrs. Al­ton Bush), Donald Plalsey, Ruth Calkins, Harold Ilinebach, Irene Franklin (Mrs. E. B. Dunstan), Arthur Benedict, Olive Klock (Mrs. Lloyd Rood), Claude Clark, Hazel Reese (Mrs. Carl Youngs), Charles Ingersoll, Irene Spicer, Clark Benley (Mrs. Bernice Waterstripe), Beu­lah Clyde, Grace Davis (Mrs. Laur­ence Bateman), Lilie Gordon (Mrs.

  1. F. Johnson), Simon Glover, Perry Hastings, Chas. Holcomb, Rhoda Howard (Mrs. Dimon Benson),

* Hazel Ingersoll (Mrs. Francis Bumpus), Vera Klock (Mrs. Louie McLean), Glenn LaCelle, DeForest Lowry, *Dee Miner, John Mattison, Myrtle Morrison (Mrs. Harold Nor­ton ), Catherine MacLeod, Elwin Poole, Constance Rogers, Lee Sheedy, Muriel Townsend (Mrs. Floyd Groves), Kate Waterbary (Mrs. Stacy), Kenneth WTills, Herbert Webb, Bertha Youngs (Mrs. G. W. Wentworth).

192-3: Dimon Benson, Barbara

Burch (Mrs. Theodore Stewart), Evelyn Calkins (Mrs. L. H. Westfall), Grace Clark (Mrs. Franklin Taylor), Blanche Davis (Mrs. Clif­ford R. Mileham), Katherine Dillenheck (Mrs. Frank Hotchkiss), Lola Geer (Mrs. J. Cooper), James Lacy, Wayland Richardson, Dorothy Smith (Mrs. E. Gallagher), Theodore Stew­art, Mildred Townsend (Mrs. Keith Gilman), Edna Upton, Harold Upton, Bur nice Waterstripe, Marie Weston (Mrs. Merle Hopkins), Izora White.

1924: Marian P. Barrett (Mrs.

Norman Cameron), Frank Bennett, Dorothy Bishop, Norma Bonney (Mrs. Joseph Heckle), Mae K. Burch, Dorothy Calkins (Mrs. Harold Nicholson), Bertha Clark, Bernice Davis (Mrs. Wm. Pendergast), Mattie Farmer, Bertha Gaylord (Mrs. Wm. Porter), Keith Gilman, Mary Gorman (Mrs. Collins), . Laura Hardy, W. Ward Hutchins, Lawson King, Lillian Kinney, Theodore Lundgren, Bernice B. McLean (Mrs. Gutchess), Zilphia McNett (Mrs. Robert Balcom), Don More, Harold Nicholson, Harry Nicholson, Lynn Smith, Lillian I. Soule (Mrs. Harlow Huntley), *Deyette Waterstripe, Ruby Watkins (Mrs. James Trumbull), * Marion Weston, Viola Whitford (Mrs. A. C. Fuller), Earl Wil­liams, Neva Rupracht (Mrs. G. Phil­lips).

1925: Hazel C. Bearup (Mrs.

Ryan), Myrtle M. Bearup (Mrs. S.

  1. Glover), Jane G. Bishop (Mrs. Frost), Ruth E. Clark (Mrs. Royal Potter), Frank H. Conklin, Eva L. Donovan (Mrs. A. House), Marion E. Downs, Lyndon D. Evaie, *Medora
  2. Fillmore, Bessie C. Forward, Ken­neth A. Fradenburg, Harry L. Hogan, Leola G. Howard (Mrs. Steinfield), Helen E. Huntley (Mrs. R. D. LaSage), Robert F. Hutchins, *Otis II. Jamerson, Florence I. Jennings (Mrs.
  3. Spencer), Helen E. Lacy (Mrs. John Wansink, Jr.), Dorothy L. Lilley (Mrs. Perry Hastings), Vivian G. Lowry, Louise B. Mathewson, Ruby
  4. Mattison (Mrs. Harry Tollerton), Hattie L. Minor (Mrs. Robert Hutch­ins), Beatrice W. Potter (Mrs. Archer Reese), Burch K. Reed, Edna
  5. Rickard (Mrs. L. J. Wheeler), Elmer D. Riley, Naomi Gray Riley (Mrs. Wm. DeShane), Rena M. Riley (Mrs. W. Cobb), Holland V/. Rood, Ralph Stewart Sanderson, Ferdinand J. Schneider, Paul Emerson Smiley, June D. Springstein, Luciie M. Stedman, Marion A. Tubbs (Mrs. Earl Williams), Marguerite E. Waggoner (Mrs. Clark LaSalle), Lucius F. Waite, Janette A. Waterstripe (Mrs. Ho wand Sprague), Mary I. White, Ada L. Wilbur (Mrs. James Sander­son), Clara A. Willis (Mrs. Charley).

19:20: Reba G. Adsit (Mrs. H.

Kessler), Alice J. Barbouhr (Mrs. Cox), Alice Bass (Mrs. Don Clark), Edward H. Bateman, Edith C. Ben­nett (Mrs. Stanley Lloyd), Alice J. Bush (Mrs. Wallace Hoteling), Anna M. Colvin (Mrs. A. C. Wood), Ken­neth A. Coiiant, Clelia J. Crawford, Fred J. Fairchild, Emily B. Ferguson (Mrs. Newton Parsons), Emily C. Gorman, Irene A. Gorman (Mrs. Paul Hale), Kathleen A. Gibbs (Mrs. E. Weisenburger), Kenneth Halsey, Katherine L. Hare (Mrs. Harold IJpton), * Sayre W. Jamerson, Claire

  1. Kelsey (Mrs. F. LeBe.au), Leila M. LaCelle (Mrs. LeRoy Coffie), Otto R. Lilley, Herbert E. Lundgren, Daison E. MacCalluin, Helen D. MeChesney (Mrs. Howard Lawrence),

Lillian I, McChesney (Mrs. Alfred Kemp), Harold C. Morrison, Laura A. Olin (Mrs. Lewis Anson), Harry J. Petrie, Golda M. Potter, Harry G. Reed, Maurice J. Richardson, Lorinda A. Sloper (Mrs. Lawrence Buttach), Inez A. Taber, Leland D. Williams.

1927: Ella R. Calkins (Mrs. W. L. Webb), Marjorie E. Davis (Mrs. Arthur March), Elsie B. Ingersoll (Mrs. John Brennan), Doris Jeanes (Mrs. Dewey Converse), Golden A. Lynn (Mrs. Donald McChesney), S. Adeline McKinley (Mrs. Harry Moriarity), Mary Ann McKinley, Francis L Nichols, Mildred B. Olmstead (Mrs. Francis Drake), Katherine Peach (Mrs. Geo. Peck), Melba Y. Rogers (Mrs. YanArsdale), Orla W. Rood (Mrs. Stanley Skinner), Merle I. Skinner (Mrs. Stuart T. Couch), Irene C. Spink, G. Elizabeth Town­send, Elmer W. Babcock, John A. Bonney, Ray Franklin Bush, Rex R. Carey, Kenneth S. Dight, Edward Wilson Fleming, Arthur Howell March, William F. McChesney, Don­ald R. Wart, William L. Webb.

1928: Annie Barnard, Marjorie

Barnes (Mrs. Andrew Parker), Dor­othy Beard (Mrs. Sidney Ferguson), Bessie Blount (Mrs. Williams), Mil­dred Carey, Hazel Durst (Mrs. Clif­ford Brewer), Margaret Elekes (Mrs. Clinton H. Lounsbury), Doris C. Heistman (Mrs. Richard Purnell), Dana Hilton (Mrs. James LeClair), Maxine Hitchcock (Mrs. Lynn Sand­erson), Jean Knapp (Mrs. Harold Pierce), Anna Lacy (Mrs. James Cancro), Mildred McChesney, Anna Mills, Esther Morenus, Alice Nichols, Adelaide Potter, Elnora Rood, Irene Ross man, Mae Rounds (Mrs. Roy Ingersoll), Luverne Smithling (Mrs. Harry Hill), Evelyn Stewart (Mrs. W. Badgely), Olyve Waters, Gertrude White, * Dudley Brownell, George Clemens, Sidney Ferguson, Robert Lattimer, George Loomis, Wallace

  1. Middleton, Donald R. Mattison, Ray Ring, John Schneider, Dewitt C. Shepard, Howard C. Sprague.

1929: Robert Austin, Plelen Blair, George L. Bonney, Donald Brundage, Esther Butterworth, Hazel Church (Mrs. Thomas A. Hunter), Maxine Cone (Mrs. Allen Hamer), * Dorothy Davis, Doris Davis (Mrs. Harold

Woodard), Wells DeGraw, Marian A. deWolf (Mrs. Hinds), Charles E. Downs, Marie Ellis (Mrs. Robert Barnard), Doris Halsey (Mrs. Allen Webb), Mary Has to, Blanche Horn­ing, Elsie Howard, Maurice J. Hurd, Elina M. Ingersoll (Mrs. Donald Youmans), Amelia Johnson, Julia Lacey, Howard S. Lawrence, Inez L. Litts (Mrs. Gordon Lafferty), Willard J. Lloyd, Geo. Lownsbery, Mona B. Maynard, Robert Murray, Lafayette Petrie, Robert Pond, Dorothy B. Sanderson, Elsie Schneider, Mildred Stock (Mrs. Robert Cates), Frank­lin Taylor, Alice Thomas, Edna Weisenburger (Mrs. A. Hatten), Golda West.

1980: Beatrice Aicholtz (Mrs.

Trumbull), Carl II. Bateman, Ansel

  1. Bonner, James W. Brownell, William Burch, Freda Bush (Mrs. Ed­ward Carr), Leo F. Butterworth, Lewis M. Carr, Genevieve Clemens (Mrs. Plarold Morrison), Marion Craig, Donald Edick, Eero Erkila, Robert Ewart, George Frary, Daisy Hale, Nina Hamblin, Francis Han­lon, Donald Plitchcock, Beulah Jew­ell, Garold W. King, Leigh R. Lar­in on, William Loomis, James F. Lynch, Hull S. Maine, Clara M. McChesney (Mrs. Albert Hudson), Helen Ostrynski, Regina Sassen, Robert Skinner, Leola E. Smith (Mrs. Stanley Robinson), Ronald C. Spicer, Orville A. Stevens, Ruth Stock, Luella Waite, Frederick Whitney.

1981: George Bennett, Norman

Bennett, Francis Carey, II. Edward Carl, Carl Clark, Leon Clark, Ralph Downes, Harwood Dunbar, Merrill F. Hurd, Erwin W. Lilley, Ploward Litts, Richard Mandigo, James Main, Charles Pulver, Clifford Reese, Richard Valley, Dorothy But­ler (Mrs. Donald Edick), Gertrude E. Chapman (Mrs. M. Trombly), Inez Crouse (Mrs. Archie Neill), Veron­ica Coville (Mrs. Ansel Bonner), Marion Clark, Hazel Dean, Marion

  1. Gardner, Ada Greenfield (Mrs. Brainard Hilton), Jessie Harnden (Mrs. E. W. Helland), Elizabeth K. Hill (Mrs. Welferd Leopold), Ethel Keeney, Frances Mattison, Ruth McHenry, Grace Merriam (Mrs. Otto Lilley), Jane Murray, Dorothy Post (Mrs. Willis Demarest), Grace Pot­ter (Mrs. Harrison Sanderson J, Helen Rhoades (Mrs. Howard Ross), Caroline Rojicek, Fern Sheeley, Etta Sloper, Margaret P. Sprague, Dor­othy Towsley, Marcelline Utley, Ruth Whitney, Beatrice Wilder (Mrs. Jack Thomas), Edna Warren, Flora B. Waite.

1932: Gladys Barker (Mrs. Glenn LeClair), Edmund Bohanon, Frances Carr (Mrs. Elmer Riley), Raymond Comins, Harry L. Cook, Henry Davis, Paul Dunn, Robert Frary, Douglas

  1. Gardner, Edward Gorman, Vivian Greene, Virginia I-Iardie (Mrs. Henry Davis), Iva Hilton (Mrs. Maxwell Kendall), Annabelle Hodder, Clar­ence W. Hollis, Alice Hurlbut (Mrs. Herbert Turner), Jeanette Hutchins (Mrs. Richard Sharp), Howard A. Larmon, DeWilton W. Lattimer, Al­bert E. Lawrence, Jr., Emily Lewis (Mrs. Harold Tuck), Alfred E. Loucks, Frederick Luther, Julia Maciejko, J. Kenneth Mattison, Sam­uel Mattison, Henry McClellan, Helen Merriam (Mrs. L. D. Tollerton), Edgar Miller, Mary Monteith, Fanny Morrison (Mrs. Forest Crane), Arthur Olmstead, Wallace Ostrynski, Mary Parker, Marjorie Parsons, Afra Petrie, Natalie Sanders (Mrs. Allen Hoxie), Florence Sassen (Mrs. Rich­ard Towsley), Margaret Scram (Mrs. L. Scriber), Adella Sloper, Harvey Sloper, Helen Stevens, Kenneth Stowell, Velton Walker, Dorothy E. Wig­gins.

1933: Arthur Balcom, Doris Bambury (Mrs. Arthur Lewis), Stephen Bosak, Anna Bylsma, Thomas Camp­bell, Roy Carl, Kenneth Champney, Thelma Clemons (Mrs. Grant Pot­ter), John Colvin, Bernice Curry (Mrs. John O’Rourke), Marian Dorr (Mrs. Martin), Marion Dunbar (Mrs. Ronald Spicer), Juanita Fins ter (Mrs. Jack Whelan), Catherine Frary (Mrs. Chas. Salisbury), James Green, Leon Greenwood, Lucille Halsey (Mrs. Howard Ardner), Gil­bert Heistman, Betty Howard, Madaline Johnson (Mrs. R. Jas. Thomp­son), Amelia Kellar (Mrs. Wm. Clement), Allen King, Eleanor Kiszkiss, Elizabeth Knowlton, Nellie Kopec, James LaCelle, Rex Lamb, Robert Littler, Donald Litts, Alice Mattison, Lois McChesney, Charles MeShane, Mary McShane, Josephine

Parkhurst, Lucy Potter (Mrs. Frank Sanderson, Jr.), Laura Rood, Nellie Rood (Mrs. Ruel Maynard), Isabel Ruel, Vivian Salisbury, Robert Sea­mans, Norma Sheeley, Mildred Sparks (Mrs. Kenneth Wheeler), Winifred Thomas, Edwin Warner, Della Weisenburger (Mrs. James Whittle), Dorothy Wilder (Mrs. Francis Geer), Jane Youngs (Mrs. Edwin W. Hiscock).

1934: Lovina J. Benjamin (Mrs. Guy Eidred), Theresa Bonney (Mrs. Theo. Cunningham), Beulah R. Bush ( Mrs. Roy Dodge), Lula Clark (Mrs. Arthur Calhoun), Peggy A. Davis, E. Pearl Flagg, Jane S. Forbes, Lillian H. Freeman (Mrs. Arthur Henry), Bernice N. Johnson (Mrs. Anson Hurd), Frances Olmstead, Anna Parker (Mrs. Robert Boyd), Reba C. Petrie, Katherine L. Remington, Dorothy H. Riley (Mrs. Raymond Nutting), Ruth M. Sheeley (Mrs. Harry White), Elma L.Trumbull, Frances L. Walter, Esther Willis, Grace Yorkey, Carl J. Benjamin, Michael J. Bosack, Robert Boyd, Max A. Butler, James Corwin, William Craig, * Clifford C. Creech, Roy C. Davidson, Earl Ells, Edwin Haggerty, Robert Hastings, David Holland, Hugh W. Jamerson, Charles Kaine, G. Harmon Littler, Marshall T. Minot, Francis M. Murtha, Robert Murtha, Ernest Quackenbush, William Rood, Charles Rule, Robert J. Sanderson, Donald

  1. Smith, Hubert Stevens, Lloyd Stevens, Arnol Teachout, Donald Tubbs, James K. Valley, * Richard White, John Wilson, Harrison Wig­gins, Charlotte Turner, Elsie Waite.

1935: Dorothy Barclay, Kathleen Betts, Theda Chase, Loretta Clark, Bertha Coffin (Mrs. Don Burdick), Bethal Crow (Mrs. Carl Falvey), Eugenia Davidson (Mrs. Raymond Henderson), Alma Edwards, Shirley Foster (Mrs. Frederick Wilson), Eliza M. Heistman, June C. Hol­land (Mrs. Stephen Malinowsky), Harriet Johnson, June Lybolt (Mrs. Elmer Germain), Margaret Manwaring (Mrs. Max Butler), Sylvia L. Martinez, Gladys Miner, Elizabeth Pall, Louise Potter (Mrs. Wells De~ Graw), Genevieve F. Robinson (Mrs. Robert Richardson), Hazel Sander­son (Mrs. Carol West), Lillian Scram, Lillian Sherman (Mrs. Herman

Tryon), Myrtle Sprague, Ruth Stew­art, Eva Stowell (Mrs. Donald Por­ter), Julia Trumble, Anngelina L. Traphagan, Marion Wightman, Doris Youngs, Norma Youngs, Donald Bel­linger, Douglas Brinklow, Norman Bush, Alfred Chapman, Herbert Cleveland, Mac Corwin, Clifford Craig, William Creech, Allen Davis,

  1. Earle Evans, Jr., Donald Halsey, Robert Hamlin, Hugh Hilton, Fran­cis Holley, John Hotchkiss, Karl Kin­ney, Clarence Lifts, Ward Miles, David Miller, Bruce Murray, Nelson North, Eugene Ordway, Carl Potter, Earl Potter, Miles Potter, Harold Robinson, Joseph Rule, Whitney E. Schouten, Donald Seamans, Richard Sheeley, Robert Spink, Ernest Tur­ner, Fillmore Utley, Wilbur Valley, Willard Watkins, Nicholas White, E. Frederic Wilson, Carlton Murray.

1986: Eva Bennett (Mrs. Frank Ostrander), Lucy Bittel, Keith Bohanan, Jack Bylsma, Ward Carey, Bessie Clark, John Clark, Genevieve Coffin (Mrs. Norman L. Clark, Jr.), Cameron Cox, Ruth Dunbar, Evelyn Ellis, Esther Everson (Mrs. Charles Stowell), Eleanor Field, Beatrice Gardner, Vernon Gayne, * Edward Gilson, Julia Guthrie, Kenneth Hager, Marie Hale (Mrs. Myron Ridgeway), Robert Hartman, Stan­ley Hinman, Dorothea Holland, Ruth Holland, Marion Hollis, C. Paul Ingersoll, Everett Ingersoll, Dorothy Johnson;, Hurley Kendall, Gordon Littler, Robert Lifts, Julia Loomis, Marian Luther, Helen Murfha, Kath­ryn O’Connell, Edward Ostrynski, Earl Pearson, Jack Roche, John Sassen, Donald Stock, Edith M. Switzer, Inabelle Webb, Iva Mae Weideman (Mrs. Paul Beebe), Jesse White, Janet Yorkey.

1937: Alvin Balcom, Kenneth Balcom, Paul Barker, Muriel Bass, Edson Bennett, Margaret Bonner, Mar­tha Bonner (Mrs. Frederick Moyer) Margaret Bosak, Donald Brown, Car­olyn Burghdurf, Harry Butler, Mary E. Cavallier, Edna Chapman, Ella M. Chase, Naomi Crawford, Lloyd Davey, Horace Field, II ar land Goodsell, Genevieve Goodwin, Doris Green, June House, Agnes Ilurlbut (Mrs. Harold Canfield), William Jackson, James Killam, Leonard Lasky, Georgianna Lattimer, Mar­guerite Littler, Frederick Loomis, Vesta Lybolt, Albert Mattison, Dor­othy Maxwell, Sarah McShane, Wal­ter Miller, Jr., Richard Miner, Merle Minor, Dorothy Murray, Harris Rhoades, William Roche, Elizabeth Rowell, Edna Sanderson, Harold Spath, Leland Stewart, Charles Sto­well, Rex Teachout, Francis Turner, James Walker, Lester Zufelt.

1938: Doris Ackley, Christine

Ahrendsen, Ralph Babcock, Donald Balcom, Robert Bambury, Helen Barclay, Harold Beard, Louise M. Bellinger, Janet Bentley, Jean Bent­ley, Raymond Brown, William Brown Jr., Charles Campbell, Samuel Clem­ents, Mary Collins, Ruth Collins, Benton Cook, R. Lucy Gould, Anna Green, Marie Halsey, Ada Hamblin, Ann Holmes (Mrs. Everett Inger­soll), Harold Hubbard, Freda Hutchins, Charles LI. Kinney, Fred Kinney, James Kohler, Margaret LaCelle, Hazel Lester, Mildred Lester, Grace Lewis, Bertha McChesney, James McShane, Charlotte Mason (Mrs. Geo. Smith), Gregory Merriam, William Miller, Arthur Morenus, Fay Nicholson, Wm. Obleman, Meryle Par­rish, Edmund Petrie, Stella Pplczak, Esther Richardson, Horace Schellenberg, Richard Sherman, Charlotte Smith, John Soukey, Edith Stewart, Rita Stewart, Grace Stock, Eldora Thomas, Donald Vincent, Robert Wart, Allan White, Lois Zufelt.

Alumni Association Meetings

The following data gives a brief summary of the Alumni meetings: Dec. 3 0, 18 90, Academy Chapel, S. C. Huntington, President; Dec. 30, 18 91, Salmon River House, E. Coit Morris, President; Dec. 29, 1892, Chapel, adjourned to Pulaski House, T. E. Hayden, President; Dec. 29, 18 9 3, Pulaski House, George

  1. Douglas, President; Dec. 28, 1894, Pulaski House, Norman S. Bentley, President; Dec. 30, 1895, Randall House, I. G. Hubbs, President; Dec. 30, 18 9 6, Pulaski House, C. Edward Jones, President; Dec. 3 0, 18 9 7, Pu­laski House, F. G. Whitney, Presi­dent; Dec. 29, 18 9 8, Pulaski House, Miss Frances King, President; Dec. 29, 1899, Pulaski ITouse, Thomas W.

Dixon, President; Dee. 29, 1900,

Pulaski House, Dr. Charles E. Low, President; Dee. 30, 1901, Pulaski House, D. Howard Naylor, President; Dec. 26, 1902, Pulaski House, Al­bert W. Wriglit, President; Dec. 29, 1903, Pulaski House, Amelia A. morris, .President; Dec. 2k> 1904,

Masonic Temple, A. Robert Warner; Dec. 26, 1905, Toilner’s Hall, James Daly, President; Dec. 26, 19 0 6, Tolh nev’s Hail, Joseph T. Wright, P^esk dent; Dec. 26, 190 7, Masonic Tem­ple, Herman W. Kandt, President; Dec. 28, 1908, Masonic Temple, Mrs. Grace Henderson Whitney, Presi­dent ; Dec. 27, 1909, Pulaski House, C. Edward Jones, President; Dec. 27, 1910, Pulaski House, George ■ W. Douglas, President; Dec. 26, 1911, Masonic Temple, Arthur H. Naylor, President; Dec. 26, 1912, Masonic Temple, E. Coit Morris, President; Dec. 26, 1913, Masonic Temple, E. Harry Bennett, President; Dec. 28. 1914, Masonic Temple, D. Howard Naylor, President; Dec. 27, 1915,

Masonic Temple, I. G. Hubbs, Presi­dent ; Dec. 26, 1916, Court House, Grand Jury Room, James M. Daly, President; 1917, No Banquet, World War year; 1918, No Banquet, World War year; Dec. 26, 1919, Randall Hotel, William K. Bentley, Presi­dent; Dec. 28, 1920, Randall Hotel, Harry E. Hinman, President; Dec. 26, 1921, Randall Hotel, W. Leon Hutt, President; Dec. 2 6, 1922,

Randall Hotel, Edwin R. Warner, President; Dec. 26, 1923, Randall Hotel, Nelson R. Pirnie, President; Dec. 2 6, 1924, Randall Hotel, Arthur W. Gleason, President; Dec. 28, 1925, I. O. O. F. Temple, Dr. C. A. Potter, President; Dec. 27, 1926,

Randall Hotel, Mrs. William E. Griffis, President; Dec. 26, 1927,

  1. O. O. F. Temple, Alexander Pirnie, President; Dec. 27, 1928, I. O. O. F. Temple, Earl Clemons, President; June 27, 1929, Ontario Bay Hotel, W. Stanley Brown, President; June 26,

1930, Ontario Bay Hotel, Horace Farrington, President; June 25,

1931, Burket Curtiss, President; June 25, 1932, Academy Gymnasium, Mrs. Edward Orton, Jr., President; June 28, 1933, M. E. Church House, James Brownell, and Vice President Olive C. Richards, presiding; June

3 0, 19 34, Randall Hotel, Lynn W. Smith President; June 27, 1935,

Academy Gymnasium, Mrs. Edward Orton, Jr., President, Clarence Gor­man presiding; June 25, 193 6,

Academy Gymnasium Clarence J. Gorman, President; June 24, 193 7, Randall Hotel, Francis M. Daly, President; June 28, 193 8, Randall Hotel, Holland Rood, President; June 29, 1939, Mrs. W. Stanley Brown, President.

Training. Class Alumni

1897-1898: Esther Gillespie, Kath­erine Witherell, Susie Hilton, Jerry B. Loomis, Miss Murray, Mary Gorman, Edward Barnard, Miss Hall.

1898-1899: Ella Sternberg, Miss McBratney, Mary Cole, Tracy Burch, Herman Kandt, Amy Tisdale, Ernest Perry, Matie Doneburg, Miss Frary, Miss Clark, Blanche Calkins, Mr. Jones, Blanche Petrie, Mamie Sulli­van, Jennie Barker, Eva French, Jessie Williamson, Miss Davis, Mary Finnerty, Mr. Potter.

1899-1900: Elizabeth C. Jones,

Fleda B. Shorey, Edith W. Nye, John A. Service, Mary L. Dunwiek, Dora E. Naylor, Nellie F. Mahaffy, Stella Getman, Clarence Sheeley, Essie Smith, Lula Frye, Ella Frye, Ella Frary, Gertrude Whipple, Bessie Laney.

1900-1901: James Creegan, Lois Rickard, Edith Tollerton, Anna Gbrist, Rena Gardenier, Adelbert Kilts, Ella Potter, Luella Austin, Miss James, Ethel Scram, Mayme Meegan, Clara Miner, Elizabeth Frye, Bessie Laney, Minnie Bartley, Mabel Burton, Eva Howland, Minnie Acton, Cora Carr, Kate Haggerty, Ada Fitzgerald, May Joslyn, Edna Fox.

1901-1902: Ethel Scram, Jessie Warner, Ella Falvey, Rena Naylor, Frances Richardson, instructress, Bessie Ewart, Miss Stewart, Miss R. M. Austin, Mr. Lam on t, Edna Fox, Anna Obrist, Ada Fitzgerald, Flor­ence Andrews, Grace Anderson, Ida Rich, Miss J. L. Austin, Nellie Miles, DeAnna Jeanes, Mae Thompson.

1903: Grace Kinney, Hazel Fox, Florence Harmon, Mary Ehle, Mabel the community, the school and its students.

The Pulaski Democrat of Decem­ber 19, 1917, gave a full account of the program planned for the dedica­tion ceremony of the school service flag as part of the usual Christmas observance. The arrangements for that occasion were in the hands of a committee of high school students and faculty. . . “The delegates from the high school are as follows: Irene Franklin and Charles Holcombe from the freshman class; Elsie McChesney and Winfield Cobb from the sopho­more class; Helen Farmer, Martha Ingersoll and Charles Manwaring from the junior class, and Lela White, James Farmer and Lee Adsit from the senior class. . . In honor of the boys of Pulaski High School who are now in the army, a service flag will be dedicated on Friday af­ternoon. An American flag will cover the service flag which will be un­veiled during the exercises. The ded­ication address will be delivered by Mr. Thomson, principal of the school. This address, ‘The Price of a Man’, will be as a tribute from the high school to the boys who have gone forth to give their lives for democ­racy. . . Beside the service flag will be placed the Roll of Honor upon which will be inscribed the names of the boys who are represented by the stars on the flag. . . ”

Another part of the program was devoted to presentation of gifts of money to the Red Cross by the fac­ulty, and high school and grade stu­dents. This program was carried out as planned.

The service flag of that date con­tained forty stars, representing grad­uates and non-graduates of the school who were already in the service of their country. As the year 1918 went by the number of former students in active service gradually increased. Compiling a list of the school’s par­ticipants as of November 11, 1918, has been handicapped by the loss in the 193 7 fire of the service flag and the honor roll.

The following list is that of the Town of Richland taken from the bronze memorial tablet in South

Park. The second list has been com­piled of as many as possible of the names of former students who en­tered service elsewhere.

* Graduates of Pulaski Union School and Academy. fAttended the school.

fEarl D. Ames, Ashton W. Avery, Charles Balcom, fRolon Balcom, f James Barnard, W. Taylor Barr, fLawrence M. Bateman, *E. Harry Bennett, *Qr!a A. Bennett, fJohn S. Bentley, *Purley J. Bentley, * Albert II. Betts, Henry F. Billhardt, f Clif­ford Bonney, fClaude H. Bortel, Dayton Boutell, Harold Boutell, Clair

  1. Brigham, Archibald Brown, John M. Brown, *W. Stanley Brown, fCharles M. Bumpus, fFrancis H. Bumpus, fGraham H. Burch, fLeslie W. Burr, H. Clayton Butterworth, Paul Eugene Carl, fEarl J. Caufield, fFrank W. Chamberlain, Floyd A. Chase, fF. Clayton Clark, fHerberi
  2. Clark, Hermon E. Clemons, fRay
  3. Clyde, Burton B. Coffin, fGordon W. Coleman, Bernard Collins, Rob­ert A. Collins, fEarl J. Coon, fllarold W. Coon, * Charles J. Daly, * John M. Daly, fWilliam C. Daly, Earl J. Da­mon, fJay E. Darling, J. Brock Davis, James DeShane, Clarence DeShane, *Ernest H. Dilienbeck, fJohn B. Dolan, Alva G. Dunbar, M. D., fRobert R. Edwards, Ross J. Estey, ♦James M. Farmer, Walter H. Farnham, Rev. Frank H. Ferris, fllarold
  4. Fluster, *Earl V. Flagg, * Arnold H. Fox, fllarold L. Franklin, Roy W. Galbraith, * Clarence J. Gorman, William T. Gorman, fFernando M. Green, fWilliam P. Green, fStewart A. Greenwood, Walter C. Griffin, ♦Frederick A. Hallenbeck, Viggo Hansen, James P. Hayes, Frank L, Hilliker, Frank D. Hogan, fFrancis W. Hohman, Clinton H. Horton, *D. Harry Howard, ♦William S. Hew­lett, *Don K. Hutchens, * Horace K. Hutchens, f Joseph G. Hutchins, Ray­mond Ivens, Albert J. Johnson, Perl Jones, Ralph P. Killam, * Tracy N. Killam, fEverett W. LaCelle, fHar­old LaCelle, Frank N. Lane, Francis
  5. Lawler, fThomas W. Lawler, By­ron R. Lester, *Leon D. Lilly, Stephen L. Lindsay, Harold S. Littler, Harold J. Loomis D. D. S., Ralph L. Lowry, Jay S. Lybolt, Jack II. McLean, ♦Robert L. McNitt,

fFred G. Mahaffy, fYates Mahaffy, Clark E. Manwaring, fNathan C. Manwaring, fLeon M. Man warren, fRaymond W. March, fWarren F. March, Clarence Martin, fJohn C. Maxwell, fJay J. More, Ray H. Muir, tRaymond J. Murray, Claude J. Oderkirk, Edison Oderkirk, fAvery C. Orton, Willis S. Peck, M. D., Harold H. Pennock, fW. Kenzie Petrie, Charles E. Phelps, yNewton W. Philbrick, Harold G. Phillips, fFranklin Pierce, * James A. Pirnie, * Miles D. Pirnie, *Nelson R. Pirnie, f Albert O. Potter, John E. Rider, Fred L. Rit­ter, M. D., fFay H. Salisbury, fFloyd S. Salisbury, Burt Sanderson, f Harry J. Sanderson, *Leon C. Saunders, Harold K. Scott, John A. Scott, Dan­iel D. Shattuck, Gordon C. Shaver, Carl B. Shaw, fHarold D. Shephard, George N. Soderland, fGlen R. Soule, tLeigh Soule, James G. Stark, Gor­don E. Stewart, Leland T. Stewart, Leon W. Stewart, fRobert Stewart, Claude Taplin, Wyon H. Taplin, tGlen Thorpe, * Lawrence R. Trum­bull, Miss Golda E. Tryon, R. N., tHarold W. Tryon, * Glenn E. Upton, *Earl J. VanHoosen, * Frank VanVoorhis Jr., William Walker, fHar­old H. White, Van R. Waterbury, fClinton F. West, Floyd Wilcox, Manford G. Williams, Wilford T. Wood­ruff, Herman H. Wooley, Harold B. Zufelt.

Entered service other than from Town of Richland:

fLee Adsit, fWilliam J. Aloan,

* Claude Bonner, fCarl D. Bump us, fDougald Campbell, f Byron Clark, ♦Earl Clemens, fWilliam Cogswell, ♦John L. Davis, D. D. S., fClaude Durgee, fAnthony Doney Edick, ♦Charles Ellis, *W. Jay Ellis, fWm. D. Fay, fWilliam Fey, fPaul Fey, ♦Glenn Fradenburgh, ♦A. Maurice Gates, * Arthur Gleason, * Ernest Grant, fCharles Hall, ♦ Cyrus Hamb­lin, ♦Arlo A. Hutt, *W. Leop Hutt, fWayne Kilburn, fClarence Klock, fW. H. Lane, M. D., * Charles Low, M. D., tClarence Murray, ♦Glenn W. Potter, fFloyd Potter, tHarold Pot­ter, fCharles P. Quaekenbush, ♦Roy A. Stone, fC. Roy Rickard, fDexter Wright.

Men who died in service from the Town of Richland were H. Clayton

Butterworth, Robert R. Edwards, By­ron R. Lester, Claude J. Oderkirk,

Earl J. VanHoosen, Herman H.

Wooley,

Graduation Honors

The first name after the date is the valedictorian, the second is saluta-

torian.

18 93, Andrew Robert Warner, Grace Lovina Fenton; 1894, Jesse D. Burdick, A. Lloyd Warner; 1895. Harrison K. Wright, David R. Ma­haffy; 1896, Marion E. Wright, Cor­nelia E. Hibbard; 18 9 7, Charles Aus­tin Lane, (equal honors) C. A. Frary, Arthur Hawley Naylor; 18 9 8, Robert S. Wright, Albert Emmons; 1899, Walter Dennison Smith, Dora Eliza­beth Naylor; 1900, Flora Almeda Greenless, John Benjamin Snow; 1901, Carl Douglas Huntington, Jos­eph Thatcher Wright; 1902, Walter Allen Erskine, Helen Elizabeth Bent­ley; 1903, Florence Estella Harmon, Edwin R. Warner; 19 04, Albert Charles Bean, (equal honor) Lula Belle Erskine, Hazel Louise Calkins; 19 05, Katherine Jane Wright, Emily Lucretia Clark; 190 6, George War­ner Huntington, Katherine Adele Richards; 190 7, Cora Flossie Macy, Olive Emma Aver ill; 190 8, Mary Isa­belle Edwards, Olive Caroline Rich­ards; 1909, Don King Hutchins, Mina Althea Orton; 1910, Florence Clarritta Farrington, Frances A. Despard; 1911, Grace Ruth Adams, Frank Sheldon Remington; 1912, Arthur N. Gleason, Chester Addison Wheeler; 1913, D. Cyrel Potter, Hazel Margaret Hamblin; 1914, Eva Ingersoll, Florence Jones; 1915, Doris Wheeler, Nelson Pirnie; 1916, Earl J. VanHoosen, Marion Frances Wills; 1917, Nellie Bristol, James A. Pirnie; 1918, Dorothy Dodge, Mil­dred Adams; 1919, Beth Ewart, Francis Parkhurst; 19 20, Elsie McCliesney, Alexander Pirnie; 19 21, Evelyn Richardson, Edith McChesney; 19 22, Catherine MacLeod, Ruth Barrett; 1923, Evelyn Calkins, Wayland Richardson; 19 24, Bertha Clark, Marion P. Barrett; 19 25, Louise Mathewson, Janette Waterstripe; 19 26, Emily Gorman, Lillian McChesney; 19 2 7, Doris Jeanes, Adaline McKinley; 1928, Mildred McChesney, Hazel Durst; 1929, Mona Maynard, Robert Austin; 193 0, H. Frederick Whitney, Eero Erkila; 19 31, Grace Potter, Jane Murray; 19 32, Alice Hurlbut, Natalie San­ders; 19 3 3, Vivian Salisbury, Cath­erine Frary; 1934, John D. Wilson, Anna Mae Parker; 19 35, Marian Wightman, Louise Potter; 19 36, Robert Hartman, Inabelle Webb; 19 3 7, Agnes Hurlbut, Richard Miner; 19 3 8, Mildred Lester, Bertha McChesney; 19 3 9, John Taylor, Helen Holland.

Scholarship and Public Speaking
Awards

Prior to 1914 a few prizes were given from time to time but this date seems to mark a definite trend beginning in recognition of scholar­ship and public speaking ability.

1914 Moody Prizes: Pre-academic

scholarship: 1st, Horace Farrington, Leila White; 2nd, Earl Flagg, Agnes Dodge. Academic: 1st, James Pirnie, Doris Wheeler; 2nd, Earl Van Hoosen, Martha McNitt. Speaking Contest: 1st, Nelson Pirnie, 2nd,

Gladys McNitt; 3rd, Mildred LaCelle; 4th, Ruth Reynolds; 5th, W. Stanley Brown.

1915 D. A. R. American history prize: Inez Burdick.

1916 Moody Prizes: Grades for

scholarship: 1st, Stella Brigham,

Harry Hogan; 2nd, Bertha Clark, Newton Ehle. Academic: 1st, Agnes Dodge, Alexander Pirnie; 2nd, Elsie McChesney, James Pirnie. Speaking Contest: 1st, Laura Gaylord; 2nd,

Zada Alger; 3rd, Mildred LaCelle; 4th, James Pirnie; 5th, Ivah Tooley. Doris Wheeler, honorable mention.

1917 Moody Prizes: Grades for

scholarship: 1st, Bertha Clark, New­

ton Ehle; 2nd, Evelyn Calkins, Harry Hogan. Academic: 1st, Gladys Fox, Francis Parkhurst; 2nd, Agnes Dodge, George Brownell. Speaking Contest: 1st, James Pirnie; 2nd,

Harold Brigham; 3rd, Plazel Tackley; 4 th, Francis Parkhurst; 5 th, Martha McNitt.

1918 Moody Prizes: Grades for

scholarship: 1st, Bertha Clark,

Robert Hutchins; 2nd, Edna Rickard,

Harry Hogan. Academic: 1st, Dorothy Dodge, Alexander Pirnie; 2nd, Edna Holcombe, Francis Parkhurst. Speak­ing Contest: 1st, Edna Holcombe; 2nd, Gladys Fox; 3rd, Dale Wilder; 4th, Alexander Pirnie; 5th, Charles Manwaring.

1919 Moody Prizes: Grades for

scholarship: 1st, Emily Gorman, Saul Kelson; 2nd, Irene Spink, David Mac Neil. Academic: 1st, Elsie McChesney, Francis Parkhurst; 2nd, Beth Ewart, Dee Miner. Speaking Contest: 1st, Alexander Pirnie; 2nd, Glenn New­ton; 3rd, Ruth Calkins; 4th, Brad­ford Crocker; 5th, Elsie McChesney.

19 20 Moody Prizes: Grades for

scholarship: 1st, Emily Gorman, Saul Kelson; 2nd, Edna Rickard, Paul Davis. Academic: 1st, Edith Mc­

Chesney, Alexander Pirnie; 2nd, Anna Balcom, Harold Hinbaueli. Speaking Contest: 1st, Xira Wight­man, George Brownell; 2nd, Ruth Calkins, Charles Plolcombe.

1921 American Legion prize for the best essay in American history on a subject since the war with Ger­many: Mildred Holden Mayne. Moody prizes: Grades for scholarship: 1st, Claire Kelsey, Robert Snyder; 2nd, Edna Rickard, Robert Hutchins. Academic: 1st, Bertha Clark, Ros­

well Whitman; 2nd, Marion Barrett, Gleason Sperling. Daniel B. Meacham prize for scholarship and character: Clark Bennett. Moody Prize Speaking Contest: 1st, Bertha Youngs, Charles Holcombe; 2nd, Evelyn Richardson, Simon Glover.

19 22 Moody Public Speaking Awards: 1st, Marie Weston, Lee

Sheedy; 2nd, Bertha Gaylord, Ward Hutchins. Scholarship Awards. Mea­cham Prize: Kate Waterbury and Lee Sheedy. Moody Prizes: Bertha Clark, Harry Hogan; 2nd, Mae Burch, Gleason Sperling. Grades: 1st, Mil­dred McChesney, Charles True; 2nd, Margaret McLeod, Donald Mattison. American Legion History essay prize, Myrtle Morrison.

1923 Moody Public Speaking Awards: 1st, Norma Bonney, Robert Hutchins; 2nd, Marie Eberhardt; Ed­ward Holcombe. Scholarship Awards. Meacham prize, three awards: Izora White, Grace Clark and Wayland

Richardson. Moody prises. Preacademic: 1st, James Brownell, Eda Holcombe; 2nd, Frank Plummer, Mildred MeCliesney. Academic: 1st, Gleason Sperling, Bertha Clark; 2nd, Harry Reed, Janette Waterstripe. American Legion essay prise, Blanche S. Davis.

19 24 Moody Public Speaking Awards: 1st, Marie Eberhardt, Ward Hutchins; 2nd, Jane Bishop, Lynn W. Smith. Interscholastic Prize Speaking: 1st, Marie Eberhardt, and Ward Hutchins. Scholarship Awards. Moody Awards, grades: 1st, Carl

Bateman, Inez Litts; 2nd, William Burch, Adelaide Morrison. Academic: 1st, Robert Hutchins, Bertha Clark; 2nd, Harry Reed, Louise Mathewson. Dr. W. E. Griffis Prize for scholar­ship for four-year course: Bertha

Clark, Marian Barrett, Mae Burch, Deyette Waterstripe, Norma Bonney. Meacham Prizes: Marian Barrett,

Lynn Smith, Frank Bennett.

19 25 Moody Prizes: Scholarship

in grades: 1st, Ruth Derrnan, Carl Bateman; 2nd, Mary Parker, William Burch. Academic: 1st, Mildred MeCliesney, Harry Hogan; 2nd, Louise Mathewson, Holland Rood. Daniel B. Meacham Scholarships: Clara A. Willis, Holland W. Rood. Dr. William Elliot Griffis presented to the six seniors having the high­est scholarship with copies of his book “Call of Jesus to Joy”: Louise Mathewson, Janette Waterstripe, Edna Rickard, Harry Hogan, Jane Bishop, Robert Hutchins. Moody Prize Speaking Contest: 1st, Reba

Adsit, Daison MacCallum; 2nd, Jane Bishop, Paul Smiley. Interscholastic Prize Speaking Contest: Reba Adsit, Daison MacCallum.

19 2 6 Moody Prizes: Scholarship

in grades: 1st, Emily Lewis, Paul

Luther; 2nd, Mary Parker, Thomas Campbell. Academic: 1st, Mildred

MeCliesney, Maxwell Brown; 2nd, Esther Morenus, Robert Lattimer. Meacham Scholarship Prizes: Reba Adsit, Golda M. Potter, Edward Bate­man. W.C.T.U. prize for best essay on “Effects of Narcotics”: Jane Mur­ray. Athletics and scholarship by Capt. and Mrs. Johnson: Elsie Ingersoll, Herbert Lundgren. Moody Prize Speaking Contest: 1st, Alice J. Bar-

bouhr, Edward II. Bateman; 2nd, Clelia J. Crawford, Leland Williams, Interscholastic Prize Speaking Con­test: Alice Barbouhr won a gold

medal and the permanent possession of the silver cup for Pulaski.

192 7 Moody Public Speaking Awards. 1st, John Schneider; Mar­jorie Davis; 2nd, Dudley Brownell, Adelaide Potter. Moody Scholarship Awards. Moody prizes: Grades, 1st, Natalie Sanders, Thomas Campbell; 2nd, Anna Mae Parker, Paul Luther; Moody Academic: 1st, Mildred Me-

Chesney, Eero Erkila; 2nd, Helen Otrynski, Frederick Whitney. Mea­cham Awards: Adaline McKinley,

Elsie Bessie Ingersoll, Golden Alice Lynn.

19 28 Scholarship Awards. Moody Prises in Grades: Zylphia Bennett, Anna Mae Parker, Jack Roche, Robert Spink. Moody Academic: Mil­dred McChesney, Leola Keeney, Carl Bateman, James Brownell. Bollinger Prize: Mildred McChesney. Latin

Prize: Mildred McChesney. American History Prize: Mildred McChesney. Mathematics Award: Frederick Whit­ney. Kenneth G. Richmond Prize for Dramatics: John Schneider. Daniel B. Meacham Scholarships: Elnora

Rood, Doris Heistman, Adelaide Pot­ter. Jewell Prize in Typewriting: Margaret Elekes. American Legion Awards: Civics, Alice Hurlbut; Am. History, Esther Morenus. Moody Pub­lic Speaking Awards: 1st, Adelaide Potter, Wallace Middleton; 2nd, El­nora Rood, Robert Austin. Inter­scholastic Prize Speaking Contest: 1st, Adelaide Potter.

19 29 Moody Prize Speaking Awards: 1st, Freda Bush, Robert

Austin; 2nd, Gwendolyn Carpenter, James Brownell. Scholarship Awards Moody Prizes in Grades: 1st, girls, Anna Mae Parker; 2nd, Grace Yorkey; 1st, boys, Robert Hartman; 2nd, Jack Roche. Moody Academic Awards: 1st, girls, Alice Hurlbut;

2nd, Leola Keeney; 1st, boys, Carl Bateman; 2nd, James Brownell. Dan­iel B. Beacham Scholarships: Elsie Schneider, Hazel Church, Charles Downs. Valedictorian’s Prize: Mona Maynard. Latin Prize: Merrill Hurd. Mathematics Award: Jane Murray. Kenneth G. Richmond Prize in Dra-

matics: Dorothy Davis. Jewell Prize in Typewriting: Myrtle Stoweil. D. A. R. Prize in El. U. S. History: Dorothy Wilder. Griffis Memorial Prize in English: Carl Bateman.

Hubbs Prize in American History: Carl Bateman, Elsie Howard. Utley Science Award: Mona E. Maynard. Butler Prize in Athletics and Scholar­ship: Elsie Schneider, James Brown­ell. Modern History Award: Merrill Hurd. Monday History Club Prizes in Art: El. Design, Dorothy Sander­son; El. Representation, Ada Green­field.

1930 Moody Public Speaking

Awards: 1st, Genevieve Clemens,

James Brownell; 2nd, Veronica Coville, Frederick Whitney. Interschol­astic Prize Speaking Awards: 1st,

James Brownell; 2nd, Genevieve Clemens. Scholastic Awards. Moody Prizes in Grades: Marian Wightman, Myrtle Sprague, Robert Hartman, Frederick Loomis. Moody Academic: Betty Howard, James Brownell, Dorothy Wilder, Carl Bateman. Mrs. Harry A. Moody Agricultural Awards: Upperclassmen, James Main, Underclassmen, Paul Dunn, Kenneth Matteson. Daniel B. Meacham Schol­arship : Genevieve Clemens, Helen

Otrynski, Eero Erkila. Miller Latin Prize: Grace Potter. Mathematics

Award: Alice Hurlbut. Kenneth C. Richmond Dramatics Prize: James

Brownell. Jewell Prize in Typewrit­ing: Inez Litts, Landon Ray. D. A. R. Prize in Elern History: Grace Yorkey. Griffis Memorial Prize in English: Ruth Stock. Hubbs Prize in American History: Merrill Hurd. Utley Science Award: Merrill Hurd. Butler Prizes in Athletics and Scholarship: Jane Murray, James Brownell. Modern History Prize: William Loomis. Mon­day Historical Club Art Awards: Grace Potter, Arthur Olmstead, Rich­ard Day. Pulaski National Bank Bank Award: James Brownell. Crim­son and Blue Awards: Robert Skin­ner, James Main.

1931 Moody Public Speaking Awards. 1st, Veronica Coville, Don­ald Hitchcock; 2nd, Emily Lewis, Howard Litts. Interscholastic Speak­ing Contest: 1st, Donald Hitchcock. Scholastic Awards: Moody Scholar­ship Awards in grades: Lucy Gould, James McShane, Bertha McChesney,

Benton Cook. Moody Academic Awards: Etta Sloper, John Wilson, Alice Hurlbut, Arthur Balcom. Mrs. Harry A. Moody Agricultural Award: Upperclassmen, Willard Otrynski; Underclassmen, Carl Benjamin, Paul Dunn. Daniel B. Meacham Scholar­ships: Etta Sloper, Grace Potter,

Gertrude Chapman. Mathematics Award: Charles McShane. Miller

Latin Prize: Etta Sloper. Kenneth C. Richmond Dramatics Prize: Veronica Coville. Jewell Typewriting Prize: Merrill Hurd, Robert Hastings. D. A. R. Prize in Elem. U. S. Plistory: David Miller. Griffis Memorial Prize in English: Merrill Hurd. Hubbs

Prize in American History: Jane Murray. Utley Science Prize in Phy­sics: Frances Mattison. Butler

Prizes in Athletics and Scholarship: Veronica Coville, Frederick Whitney. Modern History Prize: Mary Parker. Monday Historical Club Art Awards: Eleanor Kiszkiss, Lula Clark, Arthur Olmstead. Pulaski National Bank Awards: James Main. Crimson and Blue Award: James Main. W. C.

  1. U. Prize: Mary Parker, Marian Clark. Hutchins Award in Chemis­try: Frederick Whitney.

1932 Moody Public Speaking Awards: 1st, girls, Eleanor Kiszkiss, 2nd, Betty Ploward; 1st, boys, Edwin Warner, 2nd, Stephen Bosak. Moody Scholarship: Grades, 1st, girls, Ann Holmes, 2nd, Grace Lewis; 1st, boys, John Taylor, 2nd, Benton Cook. Moody Scholarships: Academic De­partment, 1st, girls, Marian Wight­man, 2nd, Kathleen Betts; 1st, boys, John Wilson, 2nd, Arthur Balcom. Mrs. Harry A. Moody Agricultural Awards: Upperclassmen, James LaCelle; 1st underclassman, Carl Ben­jamin; 2nd underclassman, James Valley. Daniel B. Meacham Scholar­ships: Alice Hurlbut, Afra Petrie, Paul Luther. Mathematics Award: John Wilson, El. Algebra. Miller Latin Prize: John Wilson. Kenneth

  1. Richmond Prize in Dramatics: Al­bert E. Lawrence, Jr. Jewell Prize in Typewirting: Natalie Sanders. D. A. R. Prize in El. U. S. History: Agnes Hurlbut. Griffis Memorial Prize in English: Albert E. Law­rence, Jr. Hubbs Prize in American History: Mary Parker. Utley Science

Award in Physics: Grace Potter.

Monday Historical Club Art Awards: Eleanor Kiszkiss, Isabel Rule, Etta Sloper. Pulaski National Bank

Award: Paul Dunn. Hutchins

Award in Chemistry: Dorothy

Wilder.

1933 Moody Public Speaking Awards: 1st, girls, Frances Walter, 2nd, Laura Rood; 1st, boys, Charles McShane, 2nd, Stephen Bosak. Moody Scholarships: Grades, 1st, girls, Ber­tha McChesney, 2nd, Lucy Gould; 1st, boys, Edward Roche, 2nd, James McShane. Moody Scholarships: Academic Dept., 1st, girls, Alice Hurlbut, 2nd, Marian Wightman; 1st, boys, John Wilson, 2nd, Robert Hartman. Mrs. Harry A. Moody Agricultural awards: Upperclassmen, Michael Bosak; underclassmen, 1st, Marshall Minot; underclassmen, 2nd, Earl Potter. Daniel B. Meacham Scholarships: Jane Youngs, James LaCelle. Miller Latin Prize: John Wilson. Mathematics Award: Nicho­las White. The Kenneth G. Rich­mond Prize in Dramatics: Betty

Howard. Jewell Prize in Typewrit­ing: Mary Parker, Catherine Frary. D. A. R. Prize in El. U. S. History: Beth Donahue. Griffis Memorial Prize in English: Robert Littler.

Hubbs Prize in American History: Charles McShane. Modern History Prize: Dorothy Riley. Monday His­torical Club Art Awards: Esther

Willis, Albert Lawrence. The Pu­laski Academy Award: Betty How­ard. Benjamin F. Hutchins Me­morial Prize in Chemistry: John

Wilson. Benson Prize in Athletics and Scholarship: Anna Mae Parker, Robert Littler. American Legion Prize in Civics: James Valley.

19 34 Moody Public Speaking Awards: girls, 1st, Shirley Foster, 2nd, Esther Willis; boys, 1st, Clif­ford Creech, 2nd, Douglas Brinklow. Interscholastic Prize Speaking Con­test: boys, 1st, Clifford Creech; girls, 2nd, Shirley Foster. Moody Scholar­ship Awards: in grades, Helen

Crocker, Edward Roche, Emma Benedict, Jack Donahue, Jack Davis. Moody Academic Awards: Elizabeth Donahue, John Wilson, Inabelle Webb, Robert Hartman. Mrs. Harry A, Moody Agricultural Awards:

Upperclassmen, Donald Litts; Under­classmen, Richard Miner, Charles Stowell. Daniel B. Meacham Scholar­ships: Esther Willis, Grace Yorkey, Francis Murtha. Mathematics Award: Robert Plartman. Miller

Latin Prize: Vivian Salisbury. Ken­neth C. Richmond Prize in Dram­atics: Clifford Creech. Jewell Prize in Typewriting: Grace Yorkey. D. A. A. Prize in Ele. U. S. History: Ben­ton Cook. Griffis Memorial Prize in English: Reba Petrie. Modern His­tory Prize: Robert Hartman. Hubbs Prize in American History: John

Wilson. Monday Historical Club Art Awards: Lula Clark, Carl Benja-

bin. Pulaski Academy Award: Clif­ford Creech. B. F. Hutchins Memo­rial Prize in Chemistry, Nicholas White. Benson Prize in Athletics and Scholarship: Anna Mae Parker,

James Valley. American Legion Auxiliary Prize in Civics: Frederick Loomis. Orton Music Awards: Mar­ian Wightman, Douglas Brinklow.

1935 Moody Public Speaking Awards: 1st, girls, Julia Guthrie,

2nd, Beatrice Gardner; 1st, Ward Miles, 2nd, Earle Evans. Scholar­ships in grades: Helen Crocker,

Marilyn Carl, Richard Gladstone, Jack Davis. Academic Scholarships: Agnes Hurlbut, Inabelle Webb, Robert Hartman, Earle Evans. Mrs. Harry A. Moody Agriculture Awards: Marshall Minot, upperclassmen: Un­derclassmen, ‘Charles Stowell, Clyde Holland. Daniel B. Meacham Scholar­ships: Marian Wightman, Louise

Potter, John Hotchkiss. Mathematics Award: Agnes Hurlbut. Miller

Latin Prize: Agnes Hurlbut, Ina­belle Webb. Richmond Prize in Dramatics: Shirley Foster. Jewell

Prize in Typewriting: Robert Hart­man. D. A. R. Prize in El. U. S. History: LeMoyne Ryel. Hubbs

Prize in American History: N. Earle Evans, Jr. Monday Historical Club Art Awards: Louise Bellinger, Harry Butler, Louise Bellinger. Pulaski Academy Awards: Ward Miles.

Benjamin F. Hutchins Memorial Prize in Chemistry: Wilbur Valley. Benson Prize in Athletics and Scholarship: Beatrice Gardner, Earle Evans. Am. Legion Auxiliary Prize in Civics: John Taylor. Orton Music

Awards: Julia Loomis, James

Walker. Am. Legion Prize in Modern History: Agnes Hurlbut. Salmon

River Dairymen’s League Coop. Assn.: 1st, Clarence Litts, 2nd, Marshall Minot, 3rd, Earl Potter. Cross Prize in English: N. Earle

Evans, Jr. Pulaski Chamber of Com­merce Better Housing Prizes: Essays, 6th grade, Lois Bonney, Jack Davis; 7 th grade, Betty Mahaffy, Jean Truesdell, John Scott, Lyle Balcom; 8th grade, Janet More; Freshmen class, James McShane; Sophomore class, Agnes Hurlbut; Junior class, Robert Hartman; Senior class, Earle Evans. Best in School, Earl Evans. Posters: 6th grade, Helen Crocker, Bert Coon; 7 th grade, Ruth Qstraner, Frederick Hellenberg; 8 th grade, Verda Galbraith; Freshmen, Margaret Balcom, Sophomore, Rus­sell McDonald; Seniors, Lillian Scram.

193 6, Moody Public Speaking Awards: 1st, girls, Sarah McShane; 2nd, Evelyn Ellis; 1st, boys, C. Paul Ingersoll; 2nd, Stanley Hinman, Jr. Moody Scholarships: Grades, Helen Crocker, Betty Hartman, Nancy Tay­lor, Joan Taylor, Richard Gladstone, Richard Davis, Heinz Noll. Moody Scholarship, Academic Department: 1st, Agnes Hurlbut; 2nd, Inabelle Webb; 1st, Robert Hartman, 2nd, Kenneth Balcom.

Mrs. Harry A. Moody Agricultural Awards: Upperclassmen, Jack Bylsma; 1st underclassmen, Robert Bambury; 2nd underclassmen, Howard Otis.

Daniel B. Meacham Scholarships: Beatrice ;Gardner, Marian Luther, John Clark. Mathematics Award, Kenneth Balcom.

Miller Latin Prize: Mildred Les­ter, Agnes Hurlbut. Kenneth G. Rich­mond prize in Dramatics: C. Paul Ingersoll. D. A. R. prize in El. U. S. History: Robert Babcock. Hubbs

prize in American History: Inabelle Webb.

Monday Historical Club Art Awards: Robert Hartman, Yernadee Sage. Pulaski Academy Award: Julia Loomis. Benjamin F. Hutch­ins Memorial prize in Chemistry: Inabelle Webb. Am. Legion Auxil­

iary prize in Civics: Lucy Gould. Or­ton Music Prizes: Beatrice Gardner, Harris Rhoades. Am. Legion prize in Modern History: Mary Evans. Cross prize in English: Robert Hartman.

Athletics and Scholarship prizes: Agnes Hurlbut, Gordon Littler. Sal­mon River Dairymen’s League Co­operative Association: Robert Litts, Marshall Minot, Jack Bylsma.

1937, Moody Public Speaking Awards: 1st, Vesta Lybolt; 2nd,

Mary E. Cavellier; 1st, Kenneth Bal­com; 2nd, Frederick Loomis. Moody Scholarships: Grades, Regena Clem­ons, Betty Hartman, Herman Noll, Heinz Noll, Ronald Potts. Moody Scholarship, Academic Department: 1st, Agnes Hurlbut; 2nd, Carolyn Burghdorf; 1st, Robert Brown; 2nd, George Murray. Mrs. Harry A. Moody Agricultural Awards: Upper­classmen, Charles Stowell; 1st under­classmen, Donald Kemp; 2nd, Francis Gayne. Daniel B. Meacham Scholar­ships: Alvin Balcom, Dorothy Mur­ray, Sarah McShane. Mathematics Award: Edward Roche. S. R. Shear Memorial Latin Prize: Mildred Les­ter. Kenneth G. Richmond Prize in Dramatics: Mary E. Cavellier. D. A. R. Prize in Elem. U. S. History: Harlan Howlett. Hubbs Prize in Am. History: Sarah Methane. Monday

Historical Club Art Awards: Mar­garet Orton, Frederick Hellenberg. Pulaski Academy Award: Frederick Loomis. Benjamin F. Hutchins Me­morial Prize in Chemistry: William Brown. Am. Legion Auxiliary Prize in Civics: Helen Crocker. Orton Music Prize: Grace Lewis, Frederick Loo­mis. Am. Legion Prize in American History: Lucy Gould. Cross Prize in English: Agnes Hurlbut. Athletics

and Scholarship Prizes: Benton

Cook, Sarah McShane.

193 8 Moody Public Speaking Awards: 1st, Doris Ackley, 2nd,

Margaret LaCelle; 1st, James Mc­Shane, 2nd, James Kohler. Moody Scholarship Awards in Grades: Betty Hartman, Patricia Parkhurst, Nancy Woods, Richard Parker, Ronald Potts. Academic department: 1st,

Helen Crocker, 2nd Marian Brown; 1st, Jack Davis, 2nd Robert Brown. Mrs. Henry A. Moody Agricultural Awards: Upperclassman, Howard

Otis; Underclassmen, 1st, Howard Miner; 2nd, Harlan Howlett. Daniel B. Meacham Scholarships: Grace

Lewis, Mary Collins. Mathematics Awards: Ralph Hazelwood. S. R.

Shear Memorial Latin Prize: Hazel Lester. Kenneth C. Richmond Prize in Dramatics: James McShane. D. A. R. Prize in Elem. U. S. History: Jean Mitchell. Hubbs Prize in Amer. His­tory: John Taylor. Monday Histor­ical Club Art Awards: Nancy Taylor, Janet Bentley. Pulaski Academy Award: James McShane. R F. Hut­chins Memorial Prize in Chemistry: Helen Holland. American Legion Auxiliary Prize in Civics: Nancy

Taylor. ‘Cross Prize in English: Ben­ton Cook. Athletics and Scholarship Prizes, Benton S. Cook, Nora Ingersoll. Lions Club Prize in Commercial ■Subjects: Charlotte Mason. C. C. B.

  1. Scholarship: Esther Richardson.

Tuesday Study Club Prize Essay: Louis Bellinger. Orton Music Prize: Russel Weideman, Grace Lewis. American Legion Prize in Modern History, John Taylor.

1939 Moody Public Speaking Awards: 1st, Dorris Zufelt, Frederic Hellenberg; 2nd William Guthrie, Melva Miles. Interscholastic Prize Speaking Awards: (2nd) Frederic

Hellenburg (2nd) Dorris Zufelt.

Sportsmanship Awards

In the Spring of 1926 Pulaski en­tered the National Fraternity of Good Sportmanship, received its charter, and the privilege to bestow the honor on members of the stu­dent body.

1926-27-28-29: Under Remini­

scences will be found a description of how the awards are made and the recipients for the first four years.

1931: Carl Clark, Veronica Coville, Dorothy Butler, Marcelline Utley, James Main, Jane Murray, Howard Litts, Merrill Hurd, Rich­ard Valley, Marian Gardner.

1932: Willard Ostrynski, Henry

Davis, Afra Petrie, Natalie Sanders, Paul Dunn, Emily Lewis, DeWilton Lattimer, Mary Parker, Alice Hurlbut, Helen Merriam.

1933 Seniors: Betty Howard,

Amelia Kellar, Eleanor Kiszkiss,

Lois McChesney, Dorothy Wilder, Jane Youngs, Mary McShane, Thomas Campbell, Robert Littler, James LaCelle, Charles McShane, Edwin Warner. Juniors: Lovina

Benjamin, Frances Olmstead, Anna Mae Parker, Frances Walter, Grace Yorkey, Carl Benjamin, Robert Boyd, Clifford Creech, Francis Murtha, Bernard Rule, William Rood.

1934: Esther Willis, Reba Petrie, James Valley, William Craig, Marian Wightman, Wilbur Valley, Ward Miles, Anson Hurd, Frederick Wil­son, Douglas Brinklow.

193 5: Louise Potter, Norma

Youngs, Kathleen Betts, Myrtle Sprague, Julia Loomis, Beatrice Gardner, Julia Guthrie, N. Earle Evans, Jr., David Miller, Clarence Litts, Eugene Ordway, Burton Dono­van, Gordon Littler.

1937: Alvin Balcom, Kenneth

Balcom, Margaret Bonner, Martha Bonner, Mary Cavallier, Dorothy Mur­ray, Frederick Loomis, Walter Miller, William Roche, Charles Stowell, Frances Turner, Anna Green, Grace Lewis, Charles Kinney, James Mc­Shane, Fay Nicholson.

1938: John Soukey, Mildred Les­ter, Rita Stewart, Doris Ackley, Margaret LaCelle, Lucy Gould, Wil­bur Eaton, Clyde Holland, John Taylor, Anne Murtha, Venita Skin­ner, Dorris Zufelt, Annie Brown.

1939: Annie Brown, Nettie Crouse, Helen Holland, Melva Howe, Gwen­dolyn Kiblin, Agnes Murtha, Vir­ginia Polczak, Robert Brown, Roger Babcock, George Murray, Francis Gayne, Lawrence Greenwood, How­ard Otis, William Guthrie.

TROPHIES AND AWARDS Agriculture

Farm Shop Skills Contest, Cornell University Farm and Home Week, 3d place, cup, 1932.

Live Stock Judging Contest, Cor­nell University, 2d prize cup, 1923.

Live Stock Judging Contest, Cor­nell University, wall plaque, 1930.

Milk Judging Contest, Cornell University, 3d prize, cup, 1935.

Athletics

Athletic awards are given under the topic Athletics.

Miscellaneous

Alumni Class Attendance Cup, the Alta Maltby Austin Cup, awarded an­nually since 193 2.

Sportsmanship Brotherhood, State Contest, 1st place, cup, 193 6.

Music

Band Parade Prize, 65th Firemen’s State Convention, Potsdam, cup, 1937.

Band, East Central District, High School Band Contest, National Bu­reau for Advancement of Music, cer­tificate, 1935.

Band, Music Festival, Albany, N. Y., plaque, 1938.

Boys’ Glee Club, Class B, Music Festival, Oswego County cup, 19 3 031-3 2-3 3.

Junior Band, American Legion Convention, Rochester, N. Y., 4th place, cup, 1935.

Junior Band, N. Y. State Fair, 5th place, wall plaque, 19 35.

Junior Concert Band, N. Y. State Fair, 4th place, plaque, 193 6.

Publications

Crimson and Blue, Year Book, Na­tional Scholastic Press Association, first class honor rating certificate, 1935.

What Not, Contest by Colum­bia Scholastic Press Association, 3rd rating, no trophy, 193 2.

Prize Speaking

Interscholastic Prize Speaking, girls’ 3 years, cup, 1924-25-26.

Registration-—Pulaski Academy and Central School—-June 6, 1939

Kindergarten: Pratt Balcom, David Barclay, Norma Barclay, Susanne Barnard, Dorothy Bateman, Edward Bateman, Jr., Katherine Brown, Lois Brown, Beverly Cone, Calvin Connor, Peter Daly, Evelyn Davis, Marilyn Hastings, Pauline Hise, Eula King, Rosemary Kinney, Willard Mahaffy, Joanne Moore, Dorothy Mowers, Edward Murray, Marguerite*Neill, Joan Pacific, Jean Parrow, Cecil Peterson, Jean Rogers, James Rossman, Pauline Rossman, Robert Salisbury, Norma Snyder, David Smith, Joyce Spath, James Thompson, Janice Wansink, Joyce Webb.

1st Grade: Douglas Barclay, Irma Barclay, Mary Yawn Bonney, Re­gina Broome, Donald Burgdorf, Earl French, Betty Gardner, Mildred Gayne, Nancy Gorman, Arden Green­wood, Sonia Hovey, Eileen McDonald, Paul Mahaffy, Ann Marie Mather, Richard Miller, Darlene Mitchell, Helen Moore, Eleanor Morenus, Verda Mouck, James Parker, Paul Radcliff, Melva Jean Rogers, William Rogers, Richard Smith, Walter Smith, Joan Thompson, Robert Trumble, John Turnbull, Jean Upton, Walter Wallace, Wallace Ward, Frances Waters, John Youker.

2nd Grade: Gerald Archer, Hazel Benedict, Norma Bennett, Evelyn Brown, Doris Buck, Fred Bush, Earle Cone, Rosemary Cummings, James Davis, Robert DeNio, Charles Howlett, Eleanor Hunt, John Janack, Nancy Johnson, Raymond Janack, Robert Killam, Norma Kline, Caro­lyn McLaughlin, Joseph Mowers, Bruce Petrie, Nanette Rubado, Donald Scott, Etta Mae Shaw, Irving Smith, Frederick Smith, Beverly Spath, Jacob Thalheimer, Norman Yalley, Nancy YanYoorhis, Robert Weideman, Ezra Williams, John Wright, Edison Zufelt.

3rd Grade: Irma Anson, Richard Benjamin, Robert Brown, Francis Buck, Jeanne Burns, June M. Cobb, Ruth Davis, William DeLong, Darwin Diefendorf, John Eldridge, A. Jane Gates, Crawford Greenfield, Mary Greenwood, Edna Lighthall, David Karl, Barbara Montondo, Robert LaForte, William Mouck, Grace Palmer, Nancy Parkhurst, N. Joan Potts, Clarence Randall, Harriet Rogers, Joseph Rose, John Sander­son, Dorothy Schuler, Dorothy Sny­der, Kathryn Snyder, Junia Soderlund, Bruce Soule, William Stanley, Dorothy Thron, H. Lyle Trumble, Clyde Yan Arsdale, Irwin Yincent, Edwin Yrooman, Audrey Wallace, Robert Wilder, James Youngs, Louise Zufelt.

4th Grade: Lois Agne, Betty Anson, Katherine Balcom, Peter Blakely, Richard Broome, James Brown, Robert Chase, Patricia Clemens, Beverly Gayne, Harold Gibbs, Melva Gregory, Coral How­lett, Charles Johnson, Shirley Kiblin, Mary Louise King, Arnold Manwaring, Kathryn Mather, Nona Mc­Donald, Elizabeth Miller, Richard Morenus, Raymond Murray, Marian

Architect’s drawing of new Pulaski Academy and Central School, Lake Street, corner of Hinman Road. Ground broken September 19, 1938. Cornerstone laying planned for June 29, 1939.

 

Nicholson, Edward Pacific, Howard Parker, Alva Parsons, Doris Phillips, Richard Potter, Earl Snyder, Mary Ann Thalheimer, Lumaine Truesdell, Shirley Turnbull, Gladys Ward, Jane Wasmuth, Betty Weisenberger, Alma Salisbury.

5th Grade: Herbert Bambury, Jr., Winifred Bentley, Alice Campbell, Patricia Carl, Vaughn Caufield, James Clark, Marilyn Cleveland, Foster Cobb, Robert Coville, Earle Cummings, Norman Daniels, Clarence Davis, Lois DeLong, Claude DeNio, Coralie Eldridge, Richard Foster, Robert Franklin, Wanetta Greenwood, Jean Howe, Lois Howlett, Donald Johnson, Douglas Lighthall, Patricia Murray, Bruce Parker, Shirley Parrow, Julia Pawlus, Donald Phelps, Joan Rubado, Walter Schuler, Charles Shattuck, Dorothy Sloper, Pamela Snyder, Arthur Spalsbury, Vernon Spencer, June Stacy, Thomas Stewart, Edna Sweatland, Wanda VanArsdale, Marvin Ward, Harold Waterstripe, David Woods, Robert Wright.

6th Grade: Richard Ague, Harold Archer, Bradford Atkinson, William Barr, Jr., Lona Bennett, Dorothy Bentley, Joyce Broome, Mathew Brown, Jr., Shirley Chase, Ronald Cobb, Harold Davis, Prepa Diefendorf, Blanche Eldridge, Raymond Gibbs, Joyce Holmes, William Howlett, Jr., Geraldine Kiblin, Frederick Killam, Wilburetta McDonald, Willard Manwaring, Walter Merriam, Joseph Pacific, Richard Parker, Patricia Parkhurst, Dorothy Phillips, Margaret Potish, Beverly Price, Merwin Robinson, Grant Sanderson, Robert Scharoun, George Shaw, Harold Stewart, Robert Sweatland, Richard Turnbull, Dickie Weideman.

7th Grade: Edward Allport, Lavern Anson, Shirley Balcom, Elane Baum, Marilyn Benedict, Beatrice Bennett, Betty Blakely, Marjorie Bonney, Lelah M. Bradford, Evelyn Brown, Sheila Carnrite, Thomas Chapman, Erma Clark, Richard Clark, Winnie Connor, William Davis, Clarence DeGaramo, Marion Eldridge, Judith Franklin, Betty Emery, Anna Mae Frank, Arlene Fravor, Wendell French, Richard Gates, Rosemary Goodwin, Harold

Griffin, Virginia Hall, Loretta Herrington, Beverly Hollis, Gerald Hurlbut, Anna Kelly, Betty Kling, Doris Krebs, Irma Lester, Winona Lighthall, Richard Loomis, Edith MacDonald, William Mahaffy, Evelyn Mattison, Ronald Mowers, Roberta Murtha, Margaret Neill, Herman Noll, Barbara Orton, Dorothy Ostrander, Lloyd Otis, William Pearson, Betty Petrie, Richard Potter, Ronald Potts, Mary Sherman Scott, Clifford Sherman, Julia Skotnicki, Walter Skotnicki, Norma Smith, Raymond Smith, George Soderlund, Jr., Loren Soule, Jacqueline Spath, Shirley Stacy, George Taylor, Shirley Taylor, Robert Tilkens, Geraldine Turnbull, Nancy Woods, Jane Wright, Eunice Youngs.

8th Grade: Will Alger, Jr., Marie Bellinger, Grace Billhardt, Lawrence Bogardus, Howard Brown. John Callahan, Margaret Carnrite, Robert Clemens, Regena Clemons, John Corey, Rosamond Daniels, Mary Dillenbeck, Clifton Eldridge, Frederick Endsley, Thelma Fraser, Bradford Galbraith, Mary Gould, Edward Graether, Hubert Greenwood, Donald Hager, Raymond Harber, Betty Hartman, Marcia Hollis, Alfred Howlett, Bertha Ivens, Alice Johnson, Loue Johnson, Muriel Kaine, Audrey Klock, Robert McDonald, Alfreda Manwaring, Donald Manwaring, Eva June Manwaring, Lloyd Miller, Harland Mooney, David Morenus, Barbara Mouck, El win Murray, Heinz Noll, Elizabeth Otis, Bernice Persons, Verna Petrie, Virginia Pizon, Annie Potish, Shirley Rupracht, Russell Sage, Harold Shaw, Charles Skinner, Clarence Sloper, Doris Smith, Loretta Smith, Lucian Smith, Ruth Smith, Astrid Soderlund, Almina Staiy, Robert Stafford, Paul Stenson, Ray Sweatland, Robert Trowbridge, Gerald Tuck, Belv a Twitchell, Franklyn VanWie, Eleanor Wart, Robert Waterstripe, Geraldine Wilder, Patsy Youngs, Howard Zufelt.

High School: Doris Ackley, Christine Ahrensen, Juanita Ames, Mary Ames, Walter Ames, Kenneth Anson, Robert Anson, Joanne Austin, Roger Babcock, Beverly Baicom, Edith BaL com, Kenneth G. Baicom, Lyle Balcom, Margaret Baleom, Mildred Balcom, Rolon Baleom, Virginia Balcom, John S. Barclay, Bessie Barker, Donald Barker, Marion Barker, Irene Barnes, Beverly Benedict, Emma Lou Benedict, Aaden Bennett, Janet Bentley, Jeanette Bonney, William Brady, Alfred Brandt, Dorothy Brandt, Annie Brown, Archie Brown, Marion Brown, RobertBrown, Virginia Brown, William Brown, Paul Burgdorf, Charles Campbell, Marylyn Carl, Jack Carnes, Norville Carnrite, Roddy Canfield, Viantha Canfield, Leo Cavellier, Raymond Cavellier, Earl Clemens, Charles Clement, James Cleveland, James Connor, Alonzo Coon, Bert F. Coon, Fred Cox, Don­ald Crandall, Arthur Creech, Thelma Creech, Helen Crocker, Howard Crocker, Nettie Crouse, Walter Crouse, Leslie Daniels, Wallace Daniels, Jack Davies, Jack Davis, Jr., Richard Davis, Roseanna Davis, Thomas Davis, Lewis Dawley, Ruth D, Dorr, Delia Draper, John Dunbar, Lucille Eason, Allie Eaton, Ersal Edwards, Lou in e Eldridge, John Ellis, Erma Fillmore, Jane Fillmore, Jean Fleming, Mary J. Fleming, Cecilia Foley, James Foley, Florence Frank, Helen Frank, Charlotte Franklin, Harrison Frary, Willard Frary, Robert Galbraith, Verda Gal­braith, Francis Gayne, Harold Gil­son, Loring P. Godfrey, Louis Goodsell, Barbara Goodwin, Howard Goodwin, John Goodwin, Rex Good­win, Rex Greene, Lawrence Green­wood, Norma Griffin, William Guthrie, Ethel Halsey, Richard Hal­sey, Earl Hanly, Ralph Hazelwood, Frederick Hellenberg, Marie Her­rington, Howard Hellenberg, Carl Hilliker, Charles Hilliker, S. Eliza­beth Hilliker, Freida Hilton, Clyde Holland, Helen Holland, Richard Holmes, Melva Howe, Harlan Row­lett, Howard Hubbard, Marion Hunt, Fred Hutchins, Charlotte Hutchin­son, Norma Ingersoll, Mildred Irens, Ruby Ivens, Harold Jackson, Leon Jackson, Albert Johnson, Dorothy Kaine, Gwendolyn Kiblin, Edward Killam, Ralph Killam, Gladys Lake, Elroy Larmon, Naylor Leach, Dor­othy Lester,, Hazel Lester, Mildred 1, e s I e r, E1 i z a I > e t h Li 111 e r, 01 i v e r Loomis, Betty Lynn, Bertha McChesney, Hugh McCliesney, Robert Mac­Donald, Barbara Matiaffy, Betty Mahaffy, Yates Mahaffy, Eleanor Manwaring, James Manwaring, Mary Jane Manwaring, Everett Martin, Robert Martin, Margaret Mason, Joan Mather, Eleanor Mattison, Richard Mattison, Virginia Mattison, Julia Maxwell, Elizabeth Merriam, Melva Miles, Elnora Miller, Howard Miner, Jean Mitchell, Betty Montondo, Geraldine Mowers, Donald Murray, George Murray, Grant Mur­ray, Virginia Murray, Agnes Murtha, L. Anne Murtha, Thelma Nicholson, Ezra Olin, Edward Orton, Margaret Orton, Jane Ostrander, Dorene Otis, Elizabeth Otis, Harley Otis, Howard Otis, Beverly Parkhurst, Helen Pa wins, Peter Pawl us, Margaret Peterson, Vernon Peterson, Edmund Petrie, Janice Petrie, Clarence Pierce, Francis Pierce, Kazmire Pizon, Watson Pizon, Raymond Polczak, Virginia Polczak, Sophie Potish, Victor Potish, Albert Potter, Jr., Evelyn Price, Lorraine Redmond, Ruth Rhoades, Stanley Robarge, Edward Roche, Ida Rosen, Harold Rossman, Rex Rossman, Elizabeth Rowell, Louis Runion, Warren Runion, LeMoyne Ryel, Stanley Sander­son, Horace Schellenberg, Richard Schroeder, Carlton Scott, Clara Scott, John Scott, Richard Scott, Arnold Seyer, Marion Skinner, Shirley Skin­ner, Yenita Skinner, Mildred Skotnicki, Doris Smith, Francis Smith, Kenneth Smith, Florence Snyder, Teresa Snyder, Frederick Soule, Douglas Spath, Richard Spath, Dor­othy Spencer, Betty Stacy, Ella May Stewart, Rita Stewart, Winifred Stewart, Catherine Sweatland, Mer­ritt A. Switzer, Wyona Tapi in, John Taylor, Willis Thomas, Charles Traphagan, Donald Trumbull, Janet . Tur­ner, Robert Turner, Paul Turo, George Vakula, John Vakula, Robert VanAlstyne, Donald Vincent, Lil­lian Vrooman, James Waite, Geraldyne Walker, Lester Walters, Anna Ward, Martha Ward, Irma Warren, Milton Warren, Dorothy Weisenburger, Anna Whaley, Laura Widrig, Edna Wilbur, Edwin L. Wilder, Tracy Wilder, Doris Wilson, Jean Zimrner, Dorris Zufelt.